Alcohol Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Phase 1 - S2 Metabolism, Endocrinology, Haematology > Alcohol Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alcohol Metabolism Deck (18)
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1

Where is alcohol mostly metabolised

In the liver

2

Where is the remainder of alcohol excreted from if not from the liver

Passively in the urine and on the breath

3

Outline alcohol metabolism

- alcohol is oxidised by alcohol dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde
- acetaldehyde is oxidised to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase

4

What is the acetate from alcohol metabolism converted into

Acetyl CoA to be used in the TCA cycle or fatty acid synthesis

5

What enzyme in the brain can metabolise alcohol

Catalase

6

True or false: cytochrome P450 enzymes can metabolise alcohol

True - but only smaller amounts

7

What is the recommended limit for alcohol consumption in a week

14 units a week spread over 3 days

8

What rate is alcohol eliminated at

7 g per hour

9

What causes a hangover

Accumulation of the toxic metabolite acetaldehyde

10

What can prolonged alcohol consumption cause

Accumulation of acetaldehyde causing liver damage, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis

11

How does alcohol consumption lead to fatty liver

The increased acetyl CoA causes an increase in fatty acid and ketone body productions which increases the synthesis of triacylglycerols in the liver

12

Why is there an increase in NADH in the liver in chronic alcoholism

In order to oxidise the alcohol and acetaldehyde NAD+ must be oxidised

13

What consequences are there due to an increase in NADH in the liver

Lactic acidosis
Hypoglycaemia
Urate crystals causing gout

14

How does an increase in NADH cause hypoglycaemia

There is inadequate NAD+ for glycerol metabolism so less gluconeogenesis

15

How does an increase in NADH cause gout

Lactate accumulates in the blood so the kidney cant excrete uric acid as well so this builds up

16

Why do lactic acidosis occur in a person with alcoholism

There's inadequate NAD+ for conversion of lactate to pyruvate so lactate levels build up

17

What drug is used for alcohol dependence

Disulfiram

18

What does disulfiram do

Inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase so there's a build up of acetaldehyde giving symptoms of a hangover