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Flashcards in clinical conditions Deck (127)
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1

what drug is given to alcoholics and how does it work

disulfiram - inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase

2

what are the results of prolonged alcohol consumption

- the increased acetyl CoA causes a fatty liver
- the decreased amount of NAD+ leads to lactic acidosis, gout and hypoglycaemia

3

what is marasmus

deficiency in all nutrients leading to inadequate energy intake

4

what is kwashiorkor

protein deficiency but adequate energy intake

5

what are the consequences of kwashiorkor

develop fatty liver as theres no proteins too mobilise the fats in the liver
also oedema as albumin cant be produced so this lowers the oncotic pressure in the blood

6

what is refeeding syndrome

when those suffering from marasmus and kwashiorkor are given too much foo too fast and so they don't have the enzymes to break down the food leading to a build up of ammonia

7

name some inhibitors of the ETC

cyanide and carbon monoxide

8

how do ETC inhibitors work

they bind to the terminal translocating complex preventing oxygen from binding

9

name some ETC uncouplers

dinitophenol, thermogenin, fatty acids

10

how do uncouplers work

they increase the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, dissipating the hydrogen ion gradient, reducing the proton motive force

11

what drug is given to patients with high cholesterol levels and how does it work

statins works by inhibiting the enzyme HMG CoA reductase

12

what do ROS cause

lipid peroxidation, disulphide bridge formation, DNA damage, protein damage

13

what are the cellular defences against ROS

- superoxide dismutase converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide then catalase converts this to oxygen and water
- glutathione
- vitamins A,C and E

14

what is galactosemia

deficiency in either galactokinase, UDP-galactose epimerase or uridyl transferase (most common)

15

what are symptoms of galactosemia

cataracts, renal failure, vomiting, brain damage

16

why does galactosemia lead to oxidative stress

the build up of galactose is converted by aldose reductase into galacticol (causing cataracts) this uses NADPH needed for cellular defence

17

what type of drug depletes NADPH

anti-malarials

18

how does a G6PDH deficiency affect ROS

less NADPH is produced which is used to reform glutathione

19

what is seen in a G6PDH deficiency

Heinz bodies which are aggregates of cross linked haemoglobin in RBC due to protein damage from ROS

20

how is paracetamol normally metabolised

broken down in the hepatocyte and conjugated with sulphate

21

what happens in a paracetamol overdose

NAPQI is produced which Is conjugated with glutathione but this gives less cellular defences against ROS

22

what drug is given in a paracetamol overdose

acetylcysteine which replenishes glutathione

23

what is the heel prick test

blood screen test in newborns to test for various diseases such as sickle cell, PKU

24

what is phenylketonuria

deficiency in phenylalanine hydroxylase giving s build up of phenylalanine which is converted to phenylketonuria

25

what is the treatment for PKU

low phenylalanine diet, avoid food high in protein

26

what are the symptoms of PKU

intellectual disability, seizures, hypopigmentation

27

what cant be produced in PKU

tyrosine

28

what is homocystinuria

deficiency in cystathioine beta synthase so methionine cant be broken down into cysteine giving a build up of homocysteine

29

what co factor is required by cystathioine beta synthase

vitamin B6

30

what is Von Gierke's disease

deficiency in glucose 6 phosphatase