Adrenal Glands Flashcards Preview

Phase 1 - S2 Metabolism, Endocrinology, Haematology > Adrenal Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adrenal Glands Deck (27)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is produced in the zona glomerulosa

mineralcorticoids e.g. aldosterone

2

what is produced in the zona fasicolata

glucocorticords e.g. cortisol

3

what is produced in the zona reticularis

androgens

4

what is produced in the medulla

adrenaline and noradrenaline

5

what are steroid hormones synthesised from

cholesterol

6

how do steroid hormones cause their effect

once entering the cell they bind to receptors causing dissociation of the chaperone proteins. the complex then binds to transcription factors or glucocorticoid response elements to alter transcriptions

7

what is the protein carriers for aldosterone and cortisol

aldosterone = albumin
cortisol = transcortin

8

what does aldosterone do

increases expression of Na/K pump

9

what is primary hyperaldosterone

a defect in the adrenal cortex causing an increase in aldosterone. this includes hyperplasia and aldosterone secreting adenomas (Conn's syndrome)

10

what is secondary hyperaldosterone

where there is a defect in RAAS causing an increase in aldosterone e.g. from renal artery stenosis

11

what drug should be given in hyperaldosterone

spironolactone - a minercorticoid antagonist

12

what are catecholamines synthesised from

tyrosine

13

what is phoachromocytoma

a chromaffin cell tumour where they secrete catecholamines

14

what are the effects of phoachromocytoma

life threatening hypertension, headahces, weight loss, increased blood glucose

15

what is congenital adrenal hyperplasia

a autosomal recessive disease where the enzyme 2,1-hydroxylase is missing and so glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids cant be produced and so their is increased production of androgens

16

what does cortisol do

increases protein breakdown, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, anti-inflammatory and suppresses immune system

17

give 2 examples of synthetic cortisols

prednisolone and hydrocortisone

18

what diseases can prednisolone be given in

inflammatory (asthma and rheumatoid arthritis), organ rejection

19

what is cushing's syndrome

an increase in cortisol

20

what causes cushing sundrome

- cushing's disease = pituitary ACTH secreting tumour
- cortisol secreting adrenal tumour
- non pituitary-adrenal ACTH secreting tumour

21

why does a cortisol secreting adrenal tumour not increase ACTH levels

as cortisol controls the production of ACTH through negative feedback

22

what are the signs and symptoms of cushing's syndrome

- increase weight to the abdomen (fat distribution changes)
- thinner arms and legs as proteins break down
- purple stretch marks
- hyperglycaemia
- slightly lower Na and slightly higher K

23

what is Addison's disease

a cortisol deficiency

24

what are the signs of Addison's disease

weight loss, tiredness, hyperpigmentation, hypoglycaemia

25

why does hypopigmentation occur in Addinson's disease

as the POMC which produces the ACTH also produces MSH which activates melanocytes

26

what are the causes of Addinson's disease

auto-immune, TB, genetic,

27

what is the treatment for Addison's crisis

fluid replacement and cortisol through IV