Pituitary Disorders Flashcards Preview

Phase 1 - S2 Metabolism, Endocrinology, Haematology > Pituitary Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pituitary Disorders Deck (40)
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1

Are are the clinical presentation of pituitary tumours

Visual loss, headache

2

What is prolactinoma

Where there is a prolactin secreting pituitary tumour

3

How is a prolactinoma treatmented

With dopamine as this decreases the size of the tumour
Radiotherapy or surgery of the pituitary gland affects its other functions

4

How big is a macro-adenoma

Over 1cm

5

What do prolactin inhibit

LH through GnRH

6

What are the symptoms of hyperprolactinaemia

Menstural disturbance
Fertility problems
Galactorrhoea - milky discharge from nipple
Vision loss due to the tumour

7

How does a tumour cause high prolactin below 5,000

It blocks dopamine release and TRH which both inhibit prolactin

8

What is likely to be the cause if prolactin is above 5,000

Active prolactin secretion (prolactinoma)

9

What are the different treatments for prolactinoma sand pituitary tumours

Prolactinomas need dopamine whereas pituitary tumours require surgery

10

what type of vision loss is accompanied by a pituitary tumour compressing the optic chiasm

bitemporal hemi-anopia

11

what symptoms are associated with a pituitary tumour growing sideways

pain and double vision as it compresses eye movement and pain nerves

12

if there is a tumour blocking movement of hormones from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland what will happen to the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary

they will decrease except prolactin which will increase as theres no negative control (hypopituitarism)

13

what does growth hormone deficiency result in

children = short statue
adult = muscle weakness and tiredness

14

what is the result of a gonadotropin deficiency

children = delayed puberty
adult = loss of secondary sexual characteristics

15

what are symptoms of a TSH deficiency

cold, weight gain, tiredness, slow pulse

16

what are the symptoms of an ACTH deficiency

tired, dizzy, low BP, low sodium
this is life threatening

17

adenomas of the pituitary gland most commonly produce which hormones

prolactin
GH
ACTH

18

which pituitary hormones can a basal blood test screen

TSH, LH, FSH, prolactin

19

which pituitary hormones require a dynamic blood test

cortisol and GH (these change throughout the day)

20

what types of dynamic blood tests can be taken

stimulation test for suspected deficiency and suppression tests for suspected excess

21

what stimulation and deficiency tests are used for ACTH and GH

ACTH
stimulation = response to hypoglycaemia
suppression = steroids

GH
stimulation = hypoglycaemic stress
suppression = glucose

22

how can the pituitary gland be viewed

by MRI

23

what is the treatment for prolactinoma

dopamine agonists to stimulate D2 receptors

24

what is the treatment for a non-functioning pituitary adenoma

surgery or radiotherapy

25

what drugs can cause high prolactin levels

dopamine antagonists e.g. anti-sickness and anti-psychotic drugs

26

what is acromegaly

where there is a GH secreting pituitary tumour

27

what are the long term complications of acromegaly

- premature cardiovascular death
- hypertension
- diabetes
- increased risk of thyroid cancer
- large hands and feet

28

what biochemical tests can confirm acromegaly

oral glucose tolerance test with failure to suppress GH
elevated IGF

29

how is acromegaly treated

- surgical removal of tumor
- dopamine agonists and somatostatins to decrease GH secretion
- radiotherapy

30

what is Cushing's disease

where there is an ACTH secreting pituitary tumour