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Phase 1 - S2 Metabolism, Endocrinology, Haematology > Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (62)
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1

What are catabolic processes

Break down of molecules to release energy in the form of reducing power

2

What are anabolic processes

Using energy and raw materials to make larger molecules for growth and repair

3

What is the definition of energy

The capacity to do work

4

What 5 things do living things require energy for

Biosynthetic work, transport, mechanical work, electrical work and osmotic work

5

What type of energy do cells use to drive their energy requiring activities

Chemical bond energy

6

What are the units for food energy

Kilojoules

7

How many kilojoules are in a kcal

4.2

8

How many carbons does glucose have

6

9

What are monosaccharides

Carbohydrates made up of a single sugar unit

10

What are oligosaccharides

Carbohydrates made up of 3-12 sugar units

11

What is sucrose made up of

Glucose and fructose

12

What is lactose made up of

Galactose and glucose

13

What is starch made up of

Polymer of glucose

14

What is glycogen made up of

Polymer of glucose

15

How many essential amino acids are there

9

16

Why are some amino acids essential

They can't be synthesised and so must be obtained from the diet

17

What are the 9 essential amino acids

Isoleucine, Lysine, Threonine, histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine

18

What are lipids made up of

Triacylglycerols (3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol)

19

Deficiencies in B12 and folate result in what

Anaemia

20

What is the daily energy expenditure the sum of

Basal metabolic rate, diet- induced thermogenesis and physical activity level

21

What is the basal metabolic rate

Energy used to maintain resting activities of the body

22

Which part of the body uses the most energy from the basal metabolic rate

Skeletal muscle (30%)

23

What factors affect basal metabolic rate

Body size, gender, temperature

24

what is metabolism

the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life

25

what 4 pathways are involved in metabolism

oxidative, detoxification, biosynthetic and storage

26

which bond is broken in ATP to release energy

the last phosphodiester bond between the gamma and beta phosphate groups

27

when are proteins used as a source of energy

in starvation

28

what 7 components make up our diet

carbohydrates, proteins, fat, minerals, vitamins, water and fibre

29

what is the carbohydrate store in humans

glycogen

30

which type of people may have more than 9 essential amino acids?

children and pregnant women as these extra amino acids are needed for rapid growth