Spleen, WBC and Cytopenia Flashcards Preview

Phase 1 - S2 Metabolism, Endocrinology, Haematology > Spleen, WBC and Cytopenia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Spleen, WBC and Cytopenia Deck (34)
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1

what does the spleen consist of

red pulp and white pulp

2

what is red pulp

sinuses lined by endothelial macrophages where RBC are filtered

3

what is white pulp

lymphoid follicles which give an active immune response due to their large amounts of B and T lymphocytes

4

why can you get weight loss with an enlarged spleen

the spleen pressures of the stomach so it cant expand fully making you feel fuller easier

5

give 4 functions of the spleen in adults

- phagocytosis of old RBC by macrophages
- blood pooling (platelets and RBCs can be mobilised rapidly)
- extramedullary haemopoiesis
- immunological function

6

what causes splenomegaly

- portal hypertension
- overworking red/white pulp
- extramedullary haemopoiesis
- infiltrating cells (cancer or granulomas)

7

what are the causes of massive, moderate and mild splenomegaly

massive = leukaemia, myleofibrosis. malaria
moderate = portal hypertension, glandular fever
mild = hepatitis, endocarditis, sarcoidosis

8

what is hypersplenism

where pancytopenia or thrombocytopenia cause pooling of the blood giving an enlarged spleen

9

what are the complications of splenomegaly

- rupture to form a haematoma
- parts of the spleen can be cut off from the blood supply causing areas of infarction

10

what is hyposplenism

lack of functioning splenic tissue

11

what causes hyposplenism

- splenectomy
- sickle cell
-coeliac

12

what is seen histologically in hyposplenism

Howell Jolly Bodies (parts of DNA)

13

what 3 organisms are people with hyposplenism particularly at risk of developing sepsis from

Pnemococcus, Haemophilius influenza and Meningococcus

14

what is cytopenia

reduction in the number of blood cells

15

what is leucopenia

reduction in WBC

16

what is pancytopenia

reduction in RBC, WBC and platelets

17

what gives more than 5 segments of a neutrophils nucleus

B12 deficiency

18

what hormone controls neutrophil maturation

G-CSF which increases neutrophil production

19

what can be administered to patients with neutropenia

recombinant G-CSF

20

what causes neutrophillia

infection, tissue damage, inflammation, cancer, myeloproliferative diseases, drugs

21

what is the neutrophil count in neutropenia

below 1.5x10*9

22

what results in an increased removal of neutrophils

- immune destruction
- sepsis
- splenic pooling

23

what causes a reduced production of neutrophils

- B12/folate deficiency
- infiltration of bone marrow
- empty bone marrow
- radiation
- drugs
- viral infection

24

what is an empty bone marrow called

aplastic anaemia

25

what are the consequences of neutropenia

- life threating bacterial and fungal infections
- mucosal ulceration
- neutropenic sepsis

26

what are monocytes

cells found in the blood which differentiate into macrophages when they reach the tissues
- involved in phagocytosis and pinocytosis in response to inflammation and antigenic stimuli

27

how long do eosinophils live

3-8 hours in circulation
8-12 days in tissues

28

what do eosinophils do

- destroy parasites
- mediator of allergic response
- phagocytosis of antigens

29

what causes eosinophilia

- allergic reactions
- drug hypersensitivity
- parasite infection
- leukaemia
- lymphoma
- myeloproliferative conditions

30

what are basophils

cells active in allergic response and inflammation