Diabetes Mellitus Flashcards Preview

Phase 1 - S2 Metabolism, Endocrinology, Haematology > Diabetes Mellitus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Mellitus Deck (19)
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1

what is type 1 diabetes

an autoimmune disease causing the destruction of beta cells

2

what are the symptoms of type 1

polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, tiredness

3

when does type 1 usually develop

childhood

4

what are the macrovascular complications of type 1

stroke, MI, foot ulcers

5

what are the microvascular complications of type 1

diabetic eye disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, diabetic foot

6

what is the management for type 1

diet, exercise, insulin therapy

7

what can untreated type 1 lead to

- hyperglycaemia
- ketoacidosis
- dehydration

8

what are the normal plasma glucose levels

3.3-6 mmol/L

9

what is the value for the renal threshold

10mmol/L

10

when does the renal threshold change

increases in the elderly and decreases in pregnancy

11

what tests can be done to monitor blood glucose or diagnose diabetes

- dipstick
- finger prick
- HbA1c
- ketone body test

12

what is type 2 diabetes

insulin receptors have a reduced sensitivity to insulin

13

true or false - ketoacidosis is seen in type 2

false

14

how is type 2 managed

diet, exercise, metformin, sulphonylureas, insulin therapy

15

what do alpha and beta cells in the islets of Langerhans do

alpha - secrete glucagon
beta - secrete insulin

16

describe how insulin is released

in high glucose levels lots of ATP is produced. this inhibits the ATP sensitive potassium channels on the beta cells causing an increase in intracellular K. this causes VGCCs to open and in calcium influx causes the release of the insulin vesicles

17

what type of channel is glucose taken up through in response to insulin

GLUT 4

18

what does insulin do

increases glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, inhibits fatty acid breakdown

19

what does glucagon do

increases glycogen breakdown, causes gluconeogenesis and stimulates breakdown of fats