Endocrine Intro and Appetite Flashcards Preview

Phase 1 - S2 Metabolism, Endocrinology, Haematology > Endocrine Intro and Appetite > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Intro and Appetite Deck (28)
Loading flashcards...
1

what do nociceptors detect

pain

2

in a control system what is the afferent pathway

communication between the receptors and control centre through the nervous system or endocrine system

3

in a control system what is the efferent pathway

communication between the control system and the effector to give a response

4

what is a set point

the parameters in which a variable must lie

5

what is the circadian/diurnal rhythm

where set points change thoughout the day during a 24 hour period

6

what is melatonin and where is it produced

a hormone which is involved in the biological clock and is released from the pineal gland

7

what is negative feedback

a response in a way to reverse and change in the system

8

what is positive feedback

a response which increases the direction of the variable to give a rapid change

9

where are osmoreceptors found

hypothalamus

10

what is the difference between osmolarity and osmolality

osmolarity = number of osmoles per litre of solution
osmolality = number of osmoles per Kg of solution

11

what is an osmole

the amount of substance that dissociates in solution to form 1 mole of osmotically active particles

12

what is the reference range for serum osmolality

275-295 mOsmol/kg

13

what are the 9 endocrine organs

- hypothalamus
- pituitary gland
- thymus
- parathyroid
-thyroid
- gonads
- pancreas
- adrenal glands
- pineal

14

what are the 4 classifications of hormones

- peptide
- steroid
- amino acid
- glycoproteins

15

which classifications of hormones are water and lipid soluble

water soluble: peptide and glycoprotien hormones
lipid soluble: steroid and amino acid

16

name 3 amino acid hormones deriving from tyrosine

adrenaline, noradrenaline, thyroid hormones

17

name 3 steroid hormones

cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone

18

where are steroid hormones derived from

cholesterol

19

how are lipid soluble hormones transported in the blood

by being bound to proteins which increases their stability and solubility and allow them to be a readily available reserve

20

what 3 factors determine the hormone levels in the blood

- rate of production
- rate of delivery
- rate of degradation

21

outline how tyrosine kinase receptors work

following binding of a ligand dimerisation occurs which allows for autophosphorylation of the receptor. the receptor can then recruit proteins and activate them through phosphorylation to give a repsonse

22

give an example of a tyrosine kinase receptor

insulin receptor

23

where is the appetite control centre located

in the hypothalamus

24

which part of the hypothalamus controls appetite

the arcute nucleus (collection of neurones)

25

what types of neurones are found in the arcute nucleus

primary and secondary neurones which respond to signals from the body

26

what are the 2 types of primary neurones in the arcute nucleus

type I = stimulatory neurones containing NPY and AgRP which promote hunger
type II = inhibitory neurones containing POMC, alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin

27

what hormones from the gut signal to the hypothalamus about hunger

- Ghrelin from the stomach stimulate appetite
- PYY from the ileum supresses hunger

28

name 3 hormones released from in the body (apart from the gut) which control hunger

- Leptin from the adipocytes stimulate inhibitory neurones and inhibits excitatory neurones in the arcute nucleus to suppress hunger
- insulin supresses hunger
- amylin from beta cells in the pancreas suppress appetite