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Flashcards in All about those microbes Deck (48):
1

What enzyme is responsible for the greenish color of pus?

Myeloperoxidase from azurphilic granules

Produced by neutrophils

2

Black eschar in nares of diabetic patient

Mucormycosis caused by mucor & rhizopus spp.

3

Partial circular, double-stranded DNA virus

Hepadnavirus
*Hepatitis B

Contains reverse transcriptase

4

Dane particle

Hepatitis B

Virion capable of infecting hepatocytes

5

Single stranded, linear DNA virus

Parvovirus

6

Viruses that acquire envelopes by budding from nuclear membrane

Herpesviruses

7

Lancet-shaped gram positive cocci in pairs

Strep pneumonia

*Most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults!

8

Positive quellung reaction

Encapsulated organisms

Strep pneumo
Neisseria meningitidis
Klebsiella pneumonia
Haemaphilus influenzae
Salmonella typhi
Cryptococcus neoformans
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Group B strep

Some nasty killers have some capsular protection. Go!

9

Bean-shaped gram negative cocci

Neisseria menigitidis

10

Chocolate agar with factors V (NAD+) and X (hematin)

H. influenzae

11

Thayer-Martin media

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

aka VPN- Vancomycin (inhibit gram positives), Polymyxin (inhibit gram negatives), & Nystatin (inhibits fungi)

12

Bordet-Gengou

Potato agar!

Bordetella pertussis

13

Tellurite plate

Corynebacterium diptheriae

14

Loffler's media

Corynebacterium diptheriae

15

Eaton's agar

M. pneumonia

16

Lowenstein-Jensen Agar

M. tuberculosis

17

Charcoal yeast extract agar buffered w/ cysteine & iron

Legionella

18

Sabouraud's agar

Fungi

19

Eosin-methylene blue

E. coli

20

Pink colonies on MacConkey's agar

Lactose-fermenting enterics

21

Biofilm-producing organisms

Staph epidermidis- prosthetic devices, IV catheters

Strep mutans & strep sanguinis- dental plaques

Pseudomonas aeruginosa- cystic fibrosis pneumonia, contact lenses

Viridans group strep- endcarditis

Nontypable H. influenzae- otitis media

22

Abdominal rose spots

Salmonella typhi

23

Comma-shaped, oxidase positive, gram negative organism that grows at 42 degrees C

Campylobacter jejuni

24

Comma-shaped, oxidase positive, gram negative, grows in alkaline media

Vibrio cholerae

25

Gram-positive rod w/ tumbling motility

Listeria

26

These viruses lose infectivity after being exposed to ether

Enveloped viruses

27

Spherules packed with endospores

Coccidioides

28

Hepatocytes w/ ground glass appearance

Hepatitis B

29

Capsule composed of D-glutamate

Bacillus anthracis

30

Fungal ball

Aspergillus

Grows in pre-existing lung cavities in immunocompromised pts

31

Agent of malignant otitis externa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

32

Gram positive rod w/ metachromatic granules

Corynebacterium diphtheriae; contains AB exotoxin

B= binding subunit

A= active subunit (inhibits cell protein synthesis by inactivating EF2)

33

In response to injury, local neutrophils & macrophages release:

TNF-alpha, IL-1, & IL-6

34

Fever + productive cough + diarrhea

Legionella!

35

Evades host immune response by binding Fc region of Ig

S. aureus (Protein A)

Prevents opsonization & phagocytosis

36

Bacteria w/ red pigment

Serratia marcescens

37

Virulence factor of group A strep

M protein- helps prevent phagocytosis

38

Which bacteria secrete IgA protease?

S. pneumonia
H. influenzae
Neisseria

*enzyme that cleaves IgA * allows colonization of respiratory mucosa

39

Endotoxin induces the production of:

TNF & IL-1

40

Which bacteria inactivate elongation factor (EF-2)?

Corynebacterium diptheriae (Diptheria toxin)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Exotoxin A)

41

Voluminous 'rice-water' diarrhea

Vibrio cholerae

Caused by cholera toxin, which overactivates adenylate cyclase by permanently activating Gs :. increasing Cl- secretion in gut & H2O efflux

42

Which bacteria cleave SNARE protein?

Clostridium tetani (Tetanospasmin toxin)- prevents release of inhibitory (GABA & glycine) neurotransmitters in spinal cord :. muscle rigidity

Clostridium botulinum (Botulinum toxin)- prevents release of stimulatory (Ach) signals @ musculoskeletal junction :. flaccid paralysis

43

Which organisms cause toxic shock syndrome & how?

MOA: Bring MHC II & TCR together to cause massive release of IFN-gamma & IL-2

Strep pyogenes (Exotoxin A)

Staph aureus (Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1)

44

Associated w/ rusty sputum, sepsis in sickl cell anemia, & splenectomy

Strep pneumoniae (aka pneumococcus)

45

Actin rockets

Formed by listeria to allow movement from cell to cell

46

Weil-felix reaction tests for. . .

Rickettsial infection (BUT it's negative for coxiella- Q fever)

47

Describe 2 forms of chlamydia

Elementary body- small dense, infections (Enfectious), enters cell via endocytosis

Reticulate body replicates in cell by fission; seen on tissue on culture

48

Treatment for local vs systemic dimorphic fungi infections

Local- Fluconazole or ketoconazole

Systemic- Amphotericin B