I want my baby back (Embryology!) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in I want my baby back (Embryology!) Deck (37):
1

Sonic hedgehog gene

Produced @ base of limbs in zone of polarizing activity Involved in patterning along anterior-posterior axis

2

Wnt-7 gene

Produced @ apical ectodermal ridge (thickened ectoderm at distal end of each developing limb) Necessary for proper organizing along dorsal-ventral axis

3

FGF gene

Produced at apical ectodermal ridge Stimulates mitosis of underlying mesoderm, providing for lengthening of limbs

4

Homeobox (Hox) genes

Involved in segmental organization of embryo in craniocaudal directon Hox mutations --> appendages in wrong locations

5

Embryonic period

Weeks 3-8; extremely susceptible to teratogens

6

What is the most common type of monozygotic twin?

Monochorionic, Diamniotic Cleavage at 4-8 days, Morula phase

7

Name the components of the placenta

Fetal components: Cytotrophoblast- inner layer of chorionic villi, makes cells Syntytiotrophoblast- outerlayer of chorionic villi, secretes hCG Maternal component: Decidua basalis (derived from endometrium)

8

Urine vs stool discharge from umbilicus

Urine- patent urachus Stool- vitelline fistula

9

Umbilical vessels

2 arteries- return deoxygenated blood from fetal internal iliac arteries to placenta 1 vein- supplied oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus; drains into IVC

10

Truncus arteriosus

Gives rise to ascending aorta & pulmonary trunk *Pathology: transposition of great vessels (failure to spiral), tetralogy of Fallot (skewed AP septum development) or persistent TA (partial AP septum development

11

Bulbus cordis

Gives rise to R ventricle & outflow tracts of L & R ventricle

12

Primitive ventricle

Gives rise to trabeculated L & R ventricle

13

Primitive atria

Gives rise to trabeculated L & R atria

14

Left horn of sinus venosus

Gives rise to coronary sinus

15

Right horn of sinus venosus

Gives rise to smooth part of R atrium

16

Right common cardinal vein & right anterior cardinal vein

Gives rise to SVC

17

Sites of fetal erythropoiesis

Yolk sac (3--8 weeks) Liver (6-20 weeks) Spleen (9-28 weeks) Bone marrow (28 weeks onward)

18

3 shunts in fetal circulation

1. Ductus venousus Umbilical vein --> IVC therefore bypassing hepatic circulation 2. Foramen ovale Blood from IVC diverted out aorta 3. Ductus arteriosus Blood from SVC expelled into pulmonary artery & ductus arteriosus to reach lower body

19

Drugs to open/close PDA

Indomethacin closes PDA Prostaglandins keep PDA Patent

20

Derivatives of primary vesicles

Forebrain (prosencephalon) Midbrain (Mesencephalon) Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon)

 

Adult derivatives of cavities: Lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle, aqueduct, upper part of 4th ventricle, -, lower part of 4th ventricle

A image thumb
21

Aortic arch derivatives

1- Maxillary artery 2- Stapedial artery, hyoid artery 3- common carotid artery, proximal part of internal carotid artery 4- aortic arch on L, proximal R subclavian on R 6- proximal part of pulmonary arteries & ductus arteriosus

22

Derivatives of branchial appartatus

Clefts- ectoderm Arches- mesoderm & neural crests Pouches- endoderm

23

Branchial cleft derivatives (aka pharyngeal grooves)

1: External auditory meatus 2-4: temporary cervical sinuses *Persistent cervical sinus---> branchial cleft cyst

24

Branchial arch derivates

1- CHEW 2- SMILE 3- SWALLOW STYLISHLY 4- SIMPLY SWALLOW 6- SPEAK

25

Branchial pouch derivatives

1- middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells 2- epithelial lining of palatine tonsils 3- inferior parathyroids (dorsal wings) & thymus (ventral wings) 4- superior parathyroids

26

Foramen cecum

Remnant of thyroglossal duct

27

Thyroglossal duct cyst vs branchial cleft cyst

Thyroglossal duct cyst- midline, moves w/ swallowing Branchial cleft cyst- persistent cervical sinus in lateral neck

28

Cleft lip vs cleft palate

Cleft lip- failure of fusion of maxillary & medial nasal processes (formation of primary palate) Cleft palate- failure of fusion of lateral palatine processes, nasal septum, and/or median palatine process (formation of secondary palate)

29

Derivatives of foregut, midgut, & hindgut

Foregut- pharynx to duodenum Midgut- duodenum to transverse colon Hindgut- distal transverse colon to rectum

30

Most common type of TE fistula

Type C

31

Pancreas origin

Foregut Ventral bud forms uncinate process Dorsal bud becomes everything else

32

Spleen origin

Dorsal mesentery BUT supplied by celiac artery, an artery from the foregut

33

Kidney embryology

Pronephros- week 4, then degenerates Mesonephros- interim kidney for 1st trimester; ultimately becomes ductus deferens & epididymis in males Metanephros- permanent

34

Components of metanephros

Ureteric bud- derived from caudal end of mesonephros; gives rise to ureter, pelvises, calyces, & collecting ducts Metanephric mesenchyme- interacts w/ ureteric bud to form glomerulus, renal tubules to distal convoluted tubule

35

Mesonephric duct

AKA wolffian duct Becomes male internal structures except prostate

36

Paramesonephric duct

AKA mullerian duct Becomes female internal structures

37

Bicornate uterus

Due to incomplete fusion of paramesonephric ducts