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Geography > Amazon Rainforest > Flashcards

Flashcards in Amazon Rainforest Deck (27):
1

What is an ecosystem

A natural system which links together the living and non-living environment

2

What is 'emergent' and what lives there

tops of tallest trees (60m tall) birds and insects live here

3

what is the canopy and what lives there

Primary layer, 45m high, filters 80% of the light, monkeys, snakes and tree frogs

4

What is the understory and what lives there

Only 5% light, plants have dark green lives with lots of chlorophyll. Snake jaguars

5

What is the forest floor and what lives there

Only 2% light so few plants, covered with rapidly decomposing plants and organisms . large mammals, tapirs, termites

6

What are the farming reasons for deforestation ( 3 )

1/ Slash and burn
2/ subsistence farming
3/ Commercial cattle ranching

7

Explain: slash and burn

Method used for forest clearance which makes the ground infertile

8

Explain: subsistence farming

Land cleared when government gave land to 25 million people

9

Explain: commercial cattle ranching

Large transportational companies sell beef mainly to fast food chains, burning forest and replacing it with grass

10

What is the transport reason for deforestation

over 12000km of new roads been built, largest being 5300km. These roads built to timber, minerals mines

11

How much, percentile wise, of the rainforest has been destroyed since 1960

40%

12

What is the settlement reason for deforestation

Increase in population means new housing is required

13

What are the resources reasons for deforestation ( 3 )

1/ Timber
2/ Minerals
3/ Hydro-electricity

14

Explain: timber

mainly hard wood cut down by logging companies with little effort to replant

15

Explain: Minerals

Including iron ore, bauxite, diamonds, gold and silver

16

Explain: Hydro-electricitiy

Is an important renewable resource but the building of large dams and lakes has caused areas of forest to flood

17

What are the effects of deforestation here? ( 6 )

1/ Habitats of animals destroyed, extinction following
2/ Reduction in Amerindians - ancient cultural people
3/ No canopy to protect soil from heavy afternoon rain - leads to soil erosion
4/ rivers polluted die to mining operations
5/ Causing climate change
6/ Change in the composition of the atmosphere - 1/3 of the oxygen comes from the rainforest

18

Explain how it causes climate change

less evapotransipration meaning there's less moisture in the water cycle leading to droughts. Burning of forest release CO2

19

What are the sustainable solutions to the problem ( 7 )

1/ Selective logging
2/ Replanting
3/ Reducing demand for hardwood
4/ Education of the issue
5/ Ecotourism
6/ Reducing debt
7/ Protection

20

Explain: selective logging

Only the oldest trees cut down,

21

Explain: Replanting

New trees plant to replace old ones, there will be trees for people to use in the future.

22

Why is it important to replant the same type of tree

So that the variety of trees is kept for the future

23

Explain: Reducing demand for hardwood

Hardwood is the main used wood for things such as furniture, reducing demand would mean less is cut down

24

Explain: Education of the issue

Some local people don't know what the environmental impacts are, they just try to make money. Also educating them about other ways to make money.

25

Explain: ecotourism

Ecotourism provides money for local people and does not harm the environment

26

Explain: Reducing debt

Reducing debt means that the poorer people do not have to log, farm or mine

27

Explain: protection

Environmental laws protecting the forests by, banning the use of wood from forests that are managed non-sustainably, banning illegal logging. set up national parks