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Flashcards in Theme 1 Deck (110):

What are the four main parts to a city

CBD, Inner city, suburbs ( inner suburbs ), rural-urban fringe ( outer suburbs )


Describe the land use in the CBD

High land values, shops, offices, transport routes meets, with high building density and competition for space.


Describe the land use in the Inner city

poorer quality housing (tower block), old industrial buildings, new housing where derelict land has been cleared


Describe the land use in the Suburbs

Housing areas where land is cheaper, middle families living here, less crime and pollution


Describe the land use in the rural-urban fringe

fewer, larger houses, farms


How does the inner city land use differ in some major cities such as France and Italy

there tends to be more wealthier middle class people living there


What main type of issues spawn from urbanisation

social and environmental


cities in richer countires have what problems

shortage of quality housing, run down CBDs, traffic congestion and pollution, ethnic segregation


Name 3 ways housing shortages have been tackled

Urban renewal schemes, New towns, relocation incentives


Describe Urban renewal schemes

This is a government strategies where they encourage investment in housing, services and employment, eg dockland development in Liverpool


Describe New towns ( in context of tackling housing shortages )

New towns house overspill populations from existing towns and cities, Milton-keynes being a good example


Describe relocation incentives

used to encourage people to live in large council houses or live in the city, freeing up houses in urban areas for people such as working families.


Why are some CBDs run down

Out of town shopping centres


what 4 steps are taken to attract people back to CBDs

pedestrianising areas, improving access, converting derelict warehouses and docks, improving public areas


Name an example of government investment for improving the CBD

London docklands


What is the housing tenure like in the CBD

Owner occupied, Privately rented


What is the housing tenure like in the Inner City

Owner occupied, Privately rented, Council rented


What is the housing tenure like in the Inner Suburbs

Owner occupied


What is the housing tenure like in the outer suburbs

Owner occupied, council rented


Housing types in the CBD



Housing types in the Inner city

Tower blocks, old terraces, modern town houses


Housing types in inner suburbs

mixed detached and semi-detached housing


Housing types in the outer suburbs

Large detached, tower blocks, low rise


Explain why terraced housing may decrease quality of life

Can be cramped , lack a front garden so child must play in the street


Explain why tower blocks may decrease quality of life

They are cramped, noisy, inconvenient when lifts are broke and means old people struggle getting home, community feel is lost as socialising is restricted


Explain why being closer to the CBD may decrease quality of life

Being close to the CBD means experiencing traffic and therefore more air pollution


Explain why unemployment in the area, IN THE AREA, is bad

Higher chance of people being on the street causing crime


Explain why high level of immigration may decrease quality of life

More strain and pressure on doctors and schools


Explain why this immigration is good

Means that there is multi-ethnic community and diverse culture being more exciting services and things to do


Explain why having detached and semi-detached housing increases quality of life

Children have more safer places to play


Explain why most homes being owned improves quality of life

People dont need to rely on a landlord if there are problems


Explain why being on the edge of a city (london) improves quality of life

Less congestion means less traffic and less air pollution


Explain why fewer people improves quality of life

Less strain on schools, doctors and other services


Explain why more employed people improves quality of life

Less crime


Where is Barcelona situated

North east Spain on the Mediterranean coastline


What part of the city is tower hamlets located

Inner city


What part of London is Havering located



Why might immigrants, immigrate

To improve standard and quality of life


What is meant by standard of life

Quantitative, measures wealth and comfort


What is meant by quality of life

Qualitative, is made up of intangible elements, which can vary from person to person, and usually encompass happiness and self-sufficiency.


Where do most the migrants in Barcelona come from

Muslim nations such as Pakistan and Morocco


Where do the Muslims live in Barcelona

the centre of the city in the ciutat Vela, in an area known as El Ravel


Why do they live in this area (3 reasons)

Because when they move there, they are generally poor, and the accommodation in this area is cheaper. Also there are people of a similar background and they need services to suit them


What services cater specifically to these Muslims (5)

Cinemas and videos rentals specialising in Muslim films, Halal butchers, Places offering cheap international calls, Shops selling clothes suited to their culture, Mosques for them to worship


Why are the mosques all clustered around El Ravel

The muslims are poor and cannot afford to travel long distances


How does richer people having access to transport affect the access to their services

The services the rich people need are not as clustered as they have the transport and means of getting there, eg, country clubs


Corner shops popularly appear in which part of cities

Inner cities


What is the sphere of influence

How far people are willing to travel to reach the service in question


What is a threshold (in the context of theme 1)

The minimum number of people required by a shop to make a profit


What are low order goods

These are things we need to use and buy frequently


What are high order goods

These are things be buy infrequently


Describe the location of Worcester

Worcestershire, West Midlands, UK
20 miles south of Birmingham
River Severn runs through the city


What is the approximate population of Worcester



Why was the CBD used/visited frequently in past

People living in the inner city could easily walk there


Why was the CBD less popular in the 1990s

Blackpool retail park, meant less traffic to access it, large free car parks, bigger ranges of products in closer area, not affected by weather


How is the CBD being regenerated

Cheap/free parking schemes, new St Martins Gate corner, also just for pedestrians during day to prevent accidents


How does more cars discourage people from shopping in the city (4 reasons)

More air pollution damaging health, more road accidents, air pollution damages buildings, more traffic jams and congestion


What are the solutions to cars discouraging people from shopping in the shopping centre (4)

Improving public transport, encourages people to use it instead of cars; Increasing car parking fees, so people use public transport instead; Bus priority lanes; pedestrianisation


Why is there often ethnic segregation ( 3 reasons )

People prefer to live with people of the same background; people live near services that are important to their culture; people of the same background are often restricted in where they can live


Why is it that some people of the same ethnicity are restricted to where they can live?

Lack of money


What 4 strategies are there to ensure that there is equal access to services

Printing signs, leaflets in multiple languages; Improving communication between all parts of the community; Providing interpreters at places like hospitals; Making sure there are suitable services for different cultures


In what type of nations in urbanisation occurring fastest



Why do poorer people move from rural to urban areas ( 3 reasons )

Theres often a shortage of services, people believe standard of living is better (which in most cases is not) and there are more jobs


Why do richer people move from rural to urban areas ( 2 reasons )

People move from farms to towns for work, people who moved away from the inner city in the later 20th century are no encouraged to move back


What problems does urbanisation arise ( 4 )

lack of housing and jobs, sanitation and transport cannot cope with population size, young population, spontaneous settlements


What are the problems for the country side (Push factors) ( 5 )

aging population, fewer extended families, continued poverty, economic stagnation, little investment


What is a push factor

Things that make people want to leave


What is a pull factor

Things that make people want to move to the place in question


What is counter-urbanisation

the process by which people move away from the major cities to smaller settlements, often villages ( in MEDCs )


What causes forced migration

Natural disasters, war, overpopulating causing lack of resources, discrimination and governmental schemes


What is an emigrant

Someone who leaves a country


What is an immigrant

Someone who enters a country


Push factors for urbanisation

Not enough jobs, lack of investment, few opportunities, lack of food, political fears, modern machinery means fewer farmers needed, poor facilities, crop failure


Pull factors for urbanisation

More jobs, better housing, better services such as schools hospitals, entertainment, longer life expectancy


What is a squatter settlement

Settlements built illegally, predominantly by people who cannot afford proper housing


What are the characteristics of squatter settlements

Badly built, lack basic services, overcrowded


What 3 ways to improve squatter settlements

Self-help schemes, Site and service schemes, local authority schemes


what is meant by self-help scheme (in context of favelas)

Government and the local people working together to improve life where the government can supply materials for better housing


What is meant by site and service schemes (in context of favelas)

People pay a small amount of rent for a site and they can borrow money to buy building materials to build or improve a house on their plot.


What is meant by local authority schemes (in context of favelas)

The local government fund temporary accommodation


Where is Rio De Janeiro

South-east Brazil.


What are the social improvements of the Bairro project ( 3 )

Adult education classes, to improves adult literacy; Daycare centres to look after children while their parents work; services to help people affected by mental issues such as addictions


What are the Economic improvements of the Bairro project ( 3 )

residents can now to legally own their properties; training schemes help people to learn new skills to find better better jobs and get paid more


What are the enviromental improvements of the Bairro project ( 3 )

Replacement of wooden buildings and the removal of homes of dangerous slopes; widening and paving the streets to allow for better access; provision of basic services such as electricity


What are the the push factors of Catinga

disease is widespread ( water borne and insects contain parasites ); medical services are far away; village life hard with little pay; Access to schoosl difficult, literacy rates low


What are the pull factor(s) of Rio De Janeiro

Better employment


What are the negative affects on Catinga of people leaving

Better educated leave, less skills in Catinga, farms are harder to manage with less people, business could close


What are the posiative affects on Catinga of people leaving

Some people benefit from remittances (money sent from Rio)


What are the problems with the favelas in Rio

Rio is overcrowded and there is not enough housing, Crime is very apparent, traffic is spawned often meaning there is severe congestion, lots of pollution bad for peoples health, working illegally in the informal sector pays no tax


Describe the Barra da Tijuca town predicament

A new town 20km up the coast from Rio more wealthy people moved into the next available flat land


Name 5 reasons for counter-urbanisation

Growth in transport and communications means people can live further away; government policies encourage moving out of cities; New out of city business parks mean people can work out of the city; pollution and traffic pushes people away; People move to nicer areas when they retire


Why is counter-urbansisation bad for local people

Local become more isolated losing community spirit


What effects does development in the rural-urban fringe have

More traffic here, People living there may feel extra housing and buildings ruin area, farmers may be forced to sell their land, Wildlife habitats can be destroyed


Why might people want to live in villages and commute to work in urban areas

Nicer environment, less crime, pollution and noise


What is a commuter village

One that has many commuters


Where is ambleside

Is a small town in the lake district national park.


Why is ambleside so accessible to tourists

It is 30km from the M6


Why is tourism good

Tourism provides jobs and businesses, ensures roads and public services are maintained


Why does traffic congestion pose a problem to the local people of ambleside ( although apply elsewhere )

Traffic congestion means commutes are long, and parking is even more difficult, tourists block the roads, pedestrians find it difficult to walk around roads and it is less enjoyable when there are fumes and lots of noise


What are the solutions to traffic in ambleside

One way system in ambleside installed. Tourists encouraged to use public transport and take walks


Why do second homes pose a problem to the local people of ambleside ( although apply elsewhere )

They prevent locals to afford their own homes, meaning they must move away


What are the solutions to second homes in ambleside

Increase of council tax on homes whihc are only used fro a few weeks or rented out


Why does too many people pose a problem to the local people of ambleside ( although apply elsewhere )

Walking on popular walks may cause footpath erosion


What are the solutions too many people in ambleside

people encouraged to use different routes and old paths paved


Why does seasonal tourism pose a problem to the local people of ambleside ( although apply elsewhere )

This means high unemployment in seasons such as winter


What are the solutions seasonal tourism in ambleside

Encourage hotels to offer cut prices in winter and council pays for Christmas lights


Why is lake windermere a problem

There are many different groups of people wanting to use the lake for different reasons


What are the solutions to the lake winderemere predicament

divide the lake into zones


Why is disruption to farmers a problem

tourists leave gates open meaning sheep may wander about


what are the solution(s) to disruption to farmers

raise awareness of the problem using signs