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Flashcards in Holderness Deck (15):
1

Where is Holderness

East coast of Yorkshire UK

2

How fast is the erosion there

Fastest in Europe: 2 m per year

3

What 2 defenses have been installed at Mappleton

Rock groynes, Rip rap or rock Armour

4

What are the 4 forms of erosion

1/ Hydraulic action
2/ Abrasion
3/ Corrosion
4/ Attrition

5

Describe Hydraulic action

Power waves attack the cliffs and compressed air weakens the rock and forces it to break up

6

Describe Abrasion

Abrasion. Bits of rock and sand in waves grind down cliff surfaces like sandpaper.

7

Describe Corrosion

The water may react with certain chemicals and minerals in some rocks and they will be dissolved

8

Describe Attrition

Waves smash rocks and pebbles on the shore into each other, and they break and become smoother.

9

What is an example of long shore drift on the Holderness coast

Spurn point, which is a spit. Around 3% of the Holderness coast is deposited here each year

10

What is a name for the wearing away of coastlines

Natural retreat

11

What risks / effects can not putting sea defenses have ( 3 )

1/ Puts caravan parks at risk
2/ Farm land can be and has been lost
3/ some house can be and have been lost

12

How could human actions increase coastal erosion

Using groynes means beaches further down are narrower and easier to wear away

13

what are the holderness cliffs made from

soft glacial material (boulder clay) which is easily worn away

14

Name the main reasons the holderness coastline is eroding at the rate it is ( 6 )

1/ the cliffs are made up of the soft glacial material
2/ the coastline is exposed to long fetched waves over the North Sea
3/ The waves have lots of force causing hydraulic action
4/ Most material eroded is washed away and the rest is moved by LSD so the coastline becomes narrower and become easier to erode
5/ Coastline threatened by sea level rise
6/ attempts to stop it one place may cause problems elsewhere

15

Why does a thicker coastline slow down erosion

The waves would brake on the beaches losing some of their force