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Flashcards in Anatomy of the Pituitary Gland Deck (26)
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1

What do the thalamus and hypothalamus make up?

Diancephalon

2

Where in the brain can the diencephalon be found?

central core of cerebrum
Connects to R+L hemispheres and midbrain

3

What 3 areas make up the brainstem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla (oblongata)

4

What connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary?

the infundibulum

5

What division of the pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus?

Posterior pituitary

6

What embryological structure eventually develops into the anterior pituitary gland?

Rathke's pouch
From Ectoderm (=> glandular tissue)

7

What embryological structure eventually forms the posterior pituitary?

Infundibulum
From NEURAL ectoderm (=> neural tissue)

8

What tumour is commonly found in the anterior pituitary gland?

Adenoma

9

What 3 sections make up the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?

Pars distalis
Pars tuberalis
Pars intermedia

10

What section makes up the posterior pituitary

Pars nervosa

11

Where is the pituitary gland located in the brain?

midline structure in pituitary fossa of sphenoid bone

12

What does the pituitary gland lie immediately inferior to?

Optic chiasm

13

What makes up the optic chiasm?

right & left optic nerves (CN II)

14

Light entering what part of the retinae causes it to cross to the opposite occipital lobe?

Nasal Retinae

=> light coming from temporal visual field

15

If a tumour grows from the pituitary and interrupts conduction at the optic chiasm, what can this cause?

Loss of vision in the temporal fields
=> Bitemporal Hemianopia

16

How can a pituitary tumour be removed surgically?

Transcranial approach (subfrontal–under frontal lobe)
Transsphenoidalapproach (via nasal cavities & sphenoid sinus)

17

What bone is responsible for forming the roof of the nasal cavity?

Cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone

18

What parts of the ethmoid bone are found above the hard palate

Superior, Middle and Inferior nasal concha

19

What are the air spaces around the ethmoid bone called?

Paranasal sinuses

20

What bones must be broken for a transsphenoid/transnasal approach?

surgical fracture of the nasal septum and the floor (septum) & roof of the sphenoid sinus(es)

21

What fracture can be more useful for surgical approach in more complicated cases

Le Fort Fracture 1

22

What is the Dura Mater?

thick membrane adherent to the internal aspects of all the bones of the cranial vault

23

What is similar to the dura mater but covers the cerebellum?

Tentorium cerebelli
** Has central gap to permit the brainstem to pass through**

24

What is the name given to the dura mater found over the pituitary fossa

Diaphragm sellae

25

What are the dural venous sinuses?

- Venous channels within the dura mater
- drain most of the venous blood from the cranial cavity (including the brain) into internal jugular veins

26

What structure passes through the cavernous sinuses?

Internal carotid arteries `