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Flashcards in Anatomy of the Thyroid Gland Deck (32)
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1

what are the anatomical relations of the thyroid gland?

larynx & trachea in the anterior neck

2

How many lobes does the thyroid have?

2 lateral lobes (right & left)

**may have an Isthmus (a narrow connecting band)**

3

Where do the lobes of the thyroid attach to?

lateral aspects of the thyroid & cricoid cartilages and to the trachea

4

Which tracheal cartilages does the isthmus lie anterior to?

2nd & 3rd cartilages of the trachea

5

What is the name given to an enlarged thyroid gland?

goitre

6

Where are the superior and inferior parathyroid glands found?

the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

7

What remnant of embryological development can be seen as part of the thyroid gland?

Pyramidal lobe
**some not connected to the main thyroid gland**1

8

Where can the pyramidal lobe attach to?

• Most attach superiorly to thyroid cartilage
• May extend as far superiorly as the hyoid bone

9

Where does thyroid development begin in the embryo?

at the junction between the anterior 2/3rds (horizontal) and posterior 1/3rd (vertical) of the tongue

10

When the thyroid migrates inferiorly during development, what does it remain attached to?

tongue via the thyroglossalduct

11

What is the name given to the superficial muscles found in the superficial fascia around the thyroid?

platysma
part of the muscles of facial expression

12

What nerve are the platysma muscles supplied by?

CN VII (the facial nerve)

13

What structures can be found in the pre-vertebral deep fascia?

Postural neck muscles
Cervical vertebrae

14

What 2 muscles are found in the investing fascia?

Trapezium
Sternocleidomastoid

15

What structures are contained in the carotid sheaths

• Vagus nerves
• Deep cervical lymph nodes
• Carotid arteries
• Internal jugular vein

16

What structures are located in the pre-tracheal fascia

• Oesophagus
• Trachea
• Thyroid gland
• Strap muscles
• Recurrent laryngeal nerves

17

What arteries are responsible for supplying the thyroid gland

Superior Thyroid Artery
Inferior Thyroid Artery
Thyroid Ima Artery (not seen in everyone)

18

Where does the superior thyroid artery branch from?

External carotid artery

19

Where does the inferior thyroid artery branch from?

R + L subclavian

20

What veins are responsible for draining the thyroid gland?

Superior Thyroid Vein
Middle Thyroid Vein
Inferior Thyroid Vein

21

Where do the superior and middle thyroid veins drain to?

Internal Jugular Vein

22

Where do the inferior thyroid veins drain to?

Brachiocephalic Vein

23

What lymph nodes surround the thyroid gland

Superior deep cervical lymph nodes

(Right) Inferior deep cervical lymph nodes

Pre-tracheal node
Para-tracheal node

24

What cranial nerve does the recurrent laryngeal nerve branch from?

CN X
(Vagus Nerve)

25

What structure does the Right Recurrent Laryngeal nerve loop underneath?

Right Subclavian Artery

26

What structure does the Left Recurrent Laryngeal nerve loop underneath?

Arch of the Aorta

27

Name the 4 strap muscles

Thyrohyoid
Sternohyoid
Omohyoid
Sternothyroid

28

How can the thyroid be surgically accessed?

• Classical thyroidectomy
• Endoscopically assisted thyroidectomy
• Endoscopic trans-axillary approach
• Endoscopic trans-breast approach

29

Where is the incision usually made in a classical thyroidectomy?

just superior to the clavicles & jugular notch

30

What does each recurrent laryngeal nerve supply?

somatic motor supply to most of the skeletal muscles that move each vocal cord