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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (63)
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1

What embryological structure forms the anterior pituitary?

Rathke's Pouch

2

Differentiate the trophic and non-trophic hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary

Trophic: TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH

Non-trophic: GH and Prolactin

3

What type of cells make up the posterior pituitary gland?

modified glial cells and axonal processes

4

What hormones does the posterior pituitary gland secrete?

Secretes ADH (vasopressin)
and oxytocin

5

The hormone secreting cells in the anterior pituitary are either Acidophils or Basophils. Classify them into both groups.

ACIDOPHILS:
Somatotrophs – secrete GH
Mammotrophs – secrete PROLACTIN

BASOPHILS:
Corticotrophs – secrete ACTH
Thyrotrophs – secrete TSH
Gonadotrophs – secrete FSH / LH

6

What name is given to a cell which does not absorb acidic nor basic dye?

Chromophobe

7

What pathologies of the anterior pituitary usually result in HYPERfunction?

Adenoma
Carcinoma

8

What conditions of the anterior pituitary often cause HYPOfunction?

- Surgery/radiation
- Sudden Haemorrhage into gland
- Ischaemic necrosis
- Sheehan Syndrome (post-partum necrosis)
- Tumours extending into sella turnica
- Inflammatory conditions (e.g. Sarcoidosis)

9

How does the posterior pituitary cause Diabetes insipidus?

- Lack of ADH secretion
- Can lead to life threatening dehydration

10

What condition is characterised by ectopic secretion of ADH by tumours?

Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)

11

Pituitary adenomas are always sporadic. TRUE/FALSE?

FALSE
can also be associated with MEN1 gene mutation

12

Pituitary adenomas can secrete more than one hormone. TRUE/FALSE?

TRUE

**although some tumours can be non-functioning also**

13

What symptoms can large adenomas cause locally?

- Atrophy of surrounding normal tissue due to pressure
- Visual field defects
- Infarction leading to panhypopituitarism

14

What is the most common FUNCTIONAL tumour found in the anterior pituitary?

Prolactinoma

15

How does a prolactinoma usually present?

Infertility
lack of libido
amenorrhea

16

A tumour secreting GH causes an increase in what peripheral hormone? And what can this cause?

- Insulin Like Growth Factors (IGF)
- Stimulates growth of bone, cartilage and CT
- causes Gigantism (if bones yet to fuse) or acromegaly

17

What type of tumours usually secrete ACTH?

Microadenoma
OR Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia

18

What hormones do pituitary carcinomas usually secrete?

Prolactin or ACTH

19

Pituitary carcinomas tend to metastasise early. TRUE/FALSE?

FALSE
metastasise LATE after multiple recurrences

20

Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing. TRUE/FALSE

TRUE
Also often cystic and may calcify

21

Where do most Craniopharyngiomas arise?

Most are suprasellar

22

What symptoms are usually present in Craniopharyngiomas?

- Headaches and visual disturbances
- Children may have growth retardation

23

Craniopharyngiomas have a good prognosis. TRUE/FALSE?

TRUE (If <5cm)
**Risk of SCC after radiation**

24

What is "Nephrogenic" Diabetes Insipidus?

Renal resistance to the effects of ADH

25

How much does one adrenal gland roughly weigh?

4-5 grams

26

What are the two distinct anatomical regions of the adrenal gland?

Cortex and Medulla

27

What conditions can cause hyperfunction in the adrenal cortex?

Hyperplasia
Adenoma
Carcinoma

28

Adrenal cortex hypofunction can be acute or chronic. What are the causes of each?

Acute
- Waterhouse-Friderichsen (septic infection)

Chronic
- Addison’s disease

29

Congential Adrenocortical Hyperplasia is Autosomal Dominant. TRUE/FALSE?

FALSE
Autosomal Recessive

30

Describe the pathogenesis of Congential Adrenocortical Hyperplasia

Enzyme deficiency
=> cant make aldosterone/ cortisol
=> all shunted to androgen production
Reduced cortisol stimulates ACTH release and cortical hyperplasia