Flashcards in Pathology Deck (63)
What embryological structure forms the anterior pituitary?
Differentiate the trophic and non-trophic hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary
Trophic: TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
Non-trophic: GH and Prolactin
What type of cells make up the posterior pituitary gland?
modified glial cells and axonal processes
What hormones does the posterior pituitary gland secrete?
Secretes ADH (vasopressin)
The hormone secreting cells in the anterior pituitary are either Acidophils or Basophils. Classify them into both groups.
Somatotrophs – secrete GH
Mammotrophs – secrete PROLACTIN
Corticotrophs – secrete ACTH
Thyrotrophs – secrete TSH
Gonadotrophs – secrete FSH / LH
What name is given to a cell which does not absorb acidic nor basic dye?
What pathologies of the anterior pituitary usually result in HYPERfunction?
What conditions of the anterior pituitary often cause HYPOfunction?
- Sudden Haemorrhage into gland
- Ischaemic necrosis
- Sheehan Syndrome (post-partum necrosis)
- Tumours extending into sella turnica
- Inflammatory conditions (e.g. Sarcoidosis)
How does the posterior pituitary cause Diabetes insipidus?
- Lack of ADH secretion
- Can lead to life threatening dehydration
What condition is characterised by ectopic secretion of ADH by tumours?
Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)
Pituitary adenomas are always sporadic. TRUE/FALSE?
can also be associated with MEN1 gene mutation
Pituitary adenomas can secrete more than one hormone. TRUE/FALSE?
**although some tumours can be non-functioning also**
What symptoms can large adenomas cause locally?
- Atrophy of surrounding normal tissue due to pressure
- Visual field defects
- Infarction leading to panhypopituitarism
What is the most common FUNCTIONAL tumour found in the anterior pituitary?
How does a prolactinoma usually present?
lack of libido
A tumour secreting GH causes an increase in what peripheral hormone? And what can this cause?
- Insulin Like Growth Factors (IGF)
- Stimulates growth of bone, cartilage and CT
- causes Gigantism (if bones yet to fuse) or acromegaly
What type of tumours usually secrete ACTH?
OR Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia
What hormones do pituitary carcinomas usually secrete?
Prolactin or ACTH
Pituitary carcinomas tend to metastasise early. TRUE/FALSE?
metastasise LATE after multiple recurrences
Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing. TRUE/FALSE
Also often cystic and may calcify
Where do most Craniopharyngiomas arise?
Most are suprasellar
What symptoms are usually present in Craniopharyngiomas?
- Headaches and visual disturbances
- Children may have growth retardation
Craniopharyngiomas have a good prognosis. TRUE/FALSE?
TRUE (If <5cm)
**Risk of SCC after radiation**
What is "Nephrogenic" Diabetes Insipidus?
Renal resistance to the effects of ADH
How much does one adrenal gland roughly weigh?
What are the two distinct anatomical regions of the adrenal gland?
Cortex and Medulla
What conditions can cause hyperfunction in the adrenal cortex?
Adrenal cortex hypofunction can be acute or chronic. What are the causes of each?
- Waterhouse-Friderichsen (septic infection)
- Addison’s disease
Congential Adrenocortical Hyperplasia is Autosomal Dominant. TRUE/FALSE?