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Flashcards in Pituitary Physiology Deck (19)
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1

What end organs does testosterone have an effect on?

Muscle
Bone
Libido
Penis
Hair follicles

2

What end organs are affected by Oestrogen?

Bone
Fat
Vagina
Heart and Liver

3

What hormones are involved in the steroid axis?

Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
ACTH
Cortisol

4

What does cortisol help the body to do?

Regulate glucose levels
Increase fat
Fight infection
Respond to stress

5

What hormone stimulates release of FSH/LH from the pituitary?

Gonadotrophin releasing hormone
(GnRH)

6

How is prolactin release stimulated from the pituitary?

If dopamine is decreased

Dopamine inhibits release of prolactin

7

How do we test if too much or too little hormone is being produced?

Blood tests

8

How do we test if the pituitary etc have become too large?

Imaging
US/MRI

9

What two types of hormone are considered "paired" hormones?

Central/pituitary
and
Peripheral

10

Give an example of paired hormones

ACTH and Cortisol
TSH and Thyroxine
FSH/LH and Testosterone/Oestrogen
GH and IGF-1

11

What structures could an enlarged pituitary gland potentially compress?

Optic chiasm
Sphenoid Bone
Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI
Internal Carotid Arteries

12

What structures are found in the cavernous sinus?

CN III, IV, VI
Internal Carotid arteries

13

What type of test is carried out if it is suspected there is too much hormone?

A suppression test
=> the level of hormone not changing would be a positive result

14

What test can be carried out if too much little hormone is suspected?

A stimulation test

15

Explain the stimulation from an Insulin Stress Test

Pt given insulin to elicit hypoglycaemia and stress response
=> Cortisol and GH should be released

16

What is given in a cortisol stimulation test?

Synacthen (synthetic ACTH)
Cortisol measured after 30,60,90 mins

17

What is a water deprivation test usually used to diagnose?

Diabetes Insipidus
- used to stimulate ADH

18

All hormones from the hypothalamus are peptide hormones except which?

Dopamine
=> AMINE

19

what hypothalamic hormone inhibits release of GH from the pituitary?

Somatostatin