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Flashcards in Type 1 Diabetes Management Deck (45)
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1

When was Insulin first isolated and by who?

1922
Banting & Macleod

2

In what decade were the short acting insulin analogues first created?

1990s

3

When were basal analogue insulins first introduced?

2000s

4

What devices are available to administer insulin?

Insulin Syringe (increments are insulin units)
Disposable Pen
Re-usable cartridge Pen
Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion pump (CSII)

5

What symptoms commonly indicate hyperglycaemia?

Thirst
Tiredness
Toilet (polyuria)
Weight loss
Nocturia (going to toilet in the night)
fungal infections
Blurred Vision

6

How does hyperglycaemia affect cognitive function?

- affects mood state
- compromises information processing
- impaired working memory

7

What serious condition is a hyperglycaemic patient at risk of?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

8

List the main symptoms of hypoglycaemia

Pallor
sweating
tremor
palpitations
confusion
nausea
hunger

9

How can hypoglycaemia affect cognitive function?

Tense-tiredness
Compromised information processing
Impaired working memory
Coma

10

What percentage of insulin released is basal?

50%
=> the other 50% = post prandial

11

Humalog, NovoRapid and Apidra are examples of what type of insulin preparation?

Rapid-acting analogue

12

Give examples of short-acting insulin

Humulin S (Human insulin)
Actrapid
Insuman Rapid

13

Give examples of intermediate acting insulin

Insulatard
Humulin I (human insulin)
Insuman Basal

14

Give examples of Long acting insulin preparations

Lantus
Levemir

15

Humalog Mix 25/50 and Novomix 30 are what type of pre-mixed insulin?

Rapid-acting analogue/Intermediate Mixture

16

Humulin M3 and Insuman Comb 15/25/50 are types of what pre-mixed insulin?

Short-acting/Intermediate Mixture

17

What insulin regimen aims to mimic normal endogenous insulin production?

Basal bolus insulin regimen

18

Why should most patients with T1DM use insulin analogues to manage their condition?

to reduce hypoglycaemia risk

19

If a patient presents to hospital with DKA, how should you begin to reintroduce their insulin once their glucose in stable?

Start at 0.3 units/kg body weight
Divide it so that 50% = prandial and 50% = Basal

20

What should a T1DM target blood glucose prior to a meal be?

Rougly 4-7mmol/l

21

What should a T1DM target blood glucose be 1-2 hours after the beginning of a meal?

<10mmol

22

A large percentage of Type 1 Diabetics require twice daily long-acting analogue insulin. TRUE/FALSE?

TRUE
at least 50-80% require this

23

What two types of insulin are usually used post-prandially?

Rapid-acting analogues
Short acting (soluble human insulin)

24

What is the onset, the peak action and the duration of rapid-acting analogue insulins used with meals?

Onset of action 10-15 mins

Peak action 60-90 mins

Duration 4-5 hrs

25

What is the onset, the peak action and the duration of short-acting soluble insulins used with meals?

Onset 30-60 mins

Peak 2-4 hrs

Last5- 8 hrs

26

What T1DM patient would find advanced carbohydrate counting useful?

- those on multiple daily injections (MDI).
- people on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (SCII) pumps

27

What are the components of advanced carbohydrate counting?

Insulin to carbohydrate ration (ICR)

Insulin sensitivity factor (ISF)
{also known as correction factor (CF)}

28

Rapid-acting prandial insulin can be adjusted according to food intake. TRUE/FALSE?

TRUE

Patients can increase their rapid-acting insulin for consumption of a larger meal

29

How many units of insulin should be administered for each 10g of carbohydrate?

1 unit of insulin per 10g

=> a plate of spaghetti with 65g of carbs would require 6.5 units of insulin

30

How do insulin pumps deliver a patients insulin?

- continuous administration of SHORT ACTING insulin subcutaneously

- Deliver Background insulin dictated by BASAL rate

- Deliver MANUALLY ACTIVATED bolus of insulin to cover meals (calculated by carb. counting)