Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (56)
The incidence of Type 1 diabetes is rising. TRUE/FALSE
the incidence of both type 1 and 2 diabetes are rising, however type 2 is rising at a faster rate
What blood tests can be used to diagnose diabetes?
What are the ranges of HbA1c that would indicate pre-diabetes or diabetes?
<41m/m = NORMAL
42-47m/m = Pre-Diabetes
>48m/m = Diabetes
Above what fasting glucose is diabetes thought to be the cause?
Compare the normal, pre-diabetic and diabetic values of a 2hr OGTT result
NORMAL <7.7 mmol/L
Pre-Diabetes 7.8-11.0 mmol/L
Diabetes >11.1 mmol/L
What is considered "fasting" for a fasting glucose test?
no calorie intake for at least 8 hrs
What is the name given to diabetes which is diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy which was not evident beforehand?
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
What auto-antibodies are often found present in Type 1 Diabetes?
anti-islet cell (IA-2)
What kind of people usually present with Type 1 diabetes?
Pre-school and peri-puberty
Small peak in late 30’s
What symptoms do people present with in Type 1 diabetes?
severe weight loss
ketonuria / metabolic acidosis
What type of people usually present with Type 2 diabetes?
pre-diagnosis duration of probably 6-10 years
What symptoms do people with type 2 diabetes present with?
insidious onset over weeks to years
ketonuria minimal or absent
evidence of micro-vascular disease
Testing should be considered in overweight/ obese patients who also display what possible risk factors?
1st-degree relative with diabetes
High-risk race/ethnicity (e.g African American, Latino)
History of CVD
High triglyceride/ HDL cholesterol level
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome
How often and for how long should women who developed gestational diabetes be checked for development of Type 2 diabetes?
lifelong testing at least every 3 years.
What symptoms are common to both the presentations of Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus?
Name the 4 main groups that can potentially cause Type 4 diabetes?
Abnormalities of insulin and its receptor (Genetic)
What is type 4 diabetes?
Diabetes caused by the presence of other health conditions
What pancreatic diseases contribute to Type 4 diabetes?
- Chronic/ recurrent pancreatitis
- Cystic Fibrosis
What endocrine disorders can cause Type 4 diabetes?
- Cushing’s syndrome
What drugs can induce Type 4 Diabetes
What genetic disorders cause the insulin receptor to malfunction, therefore creating Type 4 diabetes?
What features are most important to look out for in monogenic diabetes?
Strong Family History
Associated Features (renal cysts etc)
Give examples of rapid acting insulin
Give examples of intermediately acting insulin
Insulatard, Humulin I
Give examples of long acting insulin
What types of insulin combines a rapid analogue and a intermediate formulation of insulin?
Humalog Mix 25
Humalog Mix 50
Give examples of short acting insulin preparations
What type of insulin combines a short acting and intermediate acting insulin?
Insuman Comb 15, 25, 50
Describe the difference between Macrovascular and Microvascular complications
MACROVASCULAR: Heart Disease and Stroke
MICROVASCULAR: Retinopathy, Nephropathy, Neuropathy