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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (56)
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1

The incidence of Type 1 diabetes is rising. TRUE/FALSE

TRUE
the incidence of both type 1 and 2 diabetes are rising, however type 2 is rising at a faster rate

2

What blood tests can be used to diagnose diabetes?

HbA1c
Fasting Glucose
2hr OGTT

3

What are the ranges of HbA1c that would indicate pre-diabetes or diabetes?

<41m/m = NORMAL
42-47m/m = Pre-Diabetes
>48m/m = Diabetes

4

Above what fasting glucose is diabetes thought to be the cause?

7mmol/L

5

Compare the normal, pre-diabetic and diabetic values of a 2hr OGTT result

NORMAL <7.7 mmol/L
Pre-Diabetes 7.8-11.0 mmol/L
Diabetes >11.1 mmol/L

6

What is considered "fasting" for a fasting glucose test?

no calorie intake for at least 8 hrs

7

What is the name given to diabetes which is diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy which was not evident beforehand?

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)

8

What auto-antibodies are often found present in Type 1 Diabetes?

anti-GAD (GAD)
anti-islet cell (IA-2)
ZnT8

9

What kind of people usually present with Type 1 diabetes?

Pre-school and peri-puberty
Small peak in late 30’s
Usually lean

10

What symptoms do people present with in Type 1 diabetes?

Acute Onset
severe symptoms
severe weight loss
ketonuria / metabolic acidosis

11

What type of people usually present with Type 2 diabetes?

middle-aged/elderly
usually obese
pre-diagnosis duration of probably 6-10 years

12

What symptoms do people with type 2 diabetes present with?

insidious onset over weeks to years
ketonuria minimal or absent
evidence of micro-vascular disease

13

Testing should be considered in overweight/ obese patients who also display what possible risk factors?

1st-degree relative with diabetes
High-risk race/ethnicity (e.g African American, Latino)
History of CVD
Hypertension
High triglyceride/ HDL cholesterol level
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome
Physical inactivity

14

How often and for how long should women who developed gestational diabetes be checked for development of Type 2 diabetes?

lifelong testing at least every 3 years.

15

What symptoms are common to both the presentations of Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus?

Thirst
Polyuria
Thrush
Weakness Fatigue
Blurred Vision
Infections

16

Name the 4 main groups that can potentially cause Type 4 diabetes?

Pancreatic disease

Endocrine disease

Drug-induced

Abnormalities of insulin and its receptor (Genetic)

17

What is type 4 diabetes?

Diabetes caused by the presence of other health conditions

18

What pancreatic diseases contribute to Type 4 diabetes?

- Chronic/ recurrent pancreatitis
- Haemochromatosis
- Cystic Fibrosis

19

What endocrine disorders can cause Type 4 diabetes?

- Cushing’s syndrome
- Acromegaly
- Phaechromocytoma
- glucagonoma

20

What drugs can induce Type 4 Diabetes

Glucocorticoids
Diuretics
B-blockers

21

What genetic disorders cause the insulin receptor to malfunction, therefore creating Type 4 diabetes?

Cystic fibrosis
Myotonic dystrophy
Turner’s syndrome

22

What features are most important to look out for in monogenic diabetes?

Strong Family History
Associated Features (renal cysts etc)
Young Onset
GAD-negative
C-peptide positive

23

Give examples of rapid acting insulin

Humalog
Novorapid
Apidra

24

Give examples of intermediately acting insulin

Insulatard, Humulin I

25

Give examples of long acting insulin

Lantus
Levemir

26

What types of insulin combines a rapid analogue and a intermediate formulation of insulin?

Humalog Mix 25
Humalog Mix 50
Novomix 30

27

Give examples of short acting insulin preparations

Humulin S
Actrapid
Insuman Rapid

28

What type of insulin combines a short acting and intermediate acting insulin?

Humulin M3
Insuman Comb 15, 25, 50

29

Describe the difference between Macrovascular and Microvascular complications

MACROVASCULAR: Heart Disease and Stroke

MICROVASCULAR: Retinopathy, Nephropathy, Neuropathy

30

What can hyperglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes effectively decrease?

Insulin secretion
Glucose uptake
Incretin effect