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Flashcards in Microvascular Complications Deck (40)
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1

What are the chronic complications of Type 2 diabetes?

Macrovascular:
- IHD
- Stroke

Microvascular:
- Neuropathy
- Nephropathy
- Retinopathy

Cognitive dysfunction/ Dementia

Erectile Dysfunction

Psychiatric

2

What are the end stages of diabetic complications?

Blindness

Dialysis

Amputation

3

Why is reducing a patients HbA1c level so important with reference to complications in Type 1 Diabetes?

A reduction of 1% in a patient's HbA1c level can dramatically decrease their risk of microvascular complications

4

What are the four main types of neuropathy experienced in diabetes

Peripheral

Autonomic

Proximal

Focal Neuropathy

5

What type of neuropathy is characterised by pain and loss of feeling in the feet and hands?

Peripheral

6

What can autonomic neuropathy cause?

changes in:
- bowel/bladder function
- sexual response
- sweating
- heart rate
- blood pressure

7

Where is proximal neuropathy usually felt?

pain in the thighs/ hips/ buttocks

leading to weakness in the legs (Amyotrophy)

8

Describe the concept of Focal neuropathy

- sudden weakness in one nerve or a group of nerves
- causes muscle weakness or pain

e.g. carpal tunnel, foot drop, cranial nerve palsy

9

What are the risk factors for the development of neuropathy in diabetes?

- Increased length of diabetes
- Poor glycaemic control
- Type 1 diabetes > Type 2 diabetes
- High Cholesterol/ Lipids
- Smoking and Alcohol
- Genetics
- Mechanical Injury

10

What are the complications of peripheral neuropathy

Charcot foot
Painless trauma (e.g. needle in foot)
Foot ulcer

11

How is a painful neuropathy usually treated?

amitriptyline
duloxetine
gabapentin
pregabalin

**combinations not recommended**

12

What treatment can be given for painful neuropathy if the condition is either localised or the patient cannot tolerate oral treatments?

Topical Capsaicin Cream

13

What GI symptoms can be created by autonomic neuropathy?

Gastric slowing/ frequency
=> Constipation/ Diarrhoea (sometimes both)

Can also cause Oesophagus nerve damage
=> swallowing difficult and can lead to weight loss

Gastroparesis

14

What is gastroparesis?

=> persistent nausea and vomiting, bloating, and loss of appetite.
=> blood glucose levels fluctuate widely, due to abnormal food digestion.

15

How is Gastroparesis treated?

- Improved glycaemic control
- Diet = smaller, more frequent food portions
(If severe may need liquid meals)

- Promotility drugs
=> metoclopramide, domperidone, erythromycin

- Anti-nausea medications
=> prochlorperazine, ondansetron.

- For Abdominal pain :
=> NSAIDs
=> low dose tricyclic antidepressants,
=> gabapentin, tramadol and fentanyl

- Botulinum Toxin
- Gastric Pacemaker

16

What is the name given to profuse sweating at night or while eating caused by nerve damage?

‘Gustatory Sweating’

17

How is excessive sweating in neuropathy usually treated?

Topical glycopyrrolate
clonidine
botulinum toxin

18

What symptoms involving heart rate and blood pressure can be seen in neuropathy?

Postural Hypotension:
Blood pressure may drop sharply after sitting or standing, causing a person to feel light-headed/ faint.

Tachycardia:
Heart rate may stay HIGH, instead of rising and falling in response to normal body functions and physical activity.

19

What investigations can be carried out in autonomic neuropathy?

Nerve conduction studies or electromyography
Heart rate variability
Ultrasound.
Gastric Emptying Studies

20

What is diabetic nephropathy?

- damage to the capillaries in the kidneys' glomeruli
- characterized by nephrotic syndrome and diffuse scarring of the glomeruli

21

What test is often used to screen diabetic patients for kidney disease?

urinary Albumin Creatinine Ratio (ACR)

22

How should diabetic patients be screened regularly?

Screen all patients aged 12 or over
At diagnosis then annually
May use RANDOM rather than 1st pass urine sample as initial check
Dipstick test at point of care
Don’t forget UandE’s (Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate = eGFR)

23

What are the risk factors for nephropathy progression?

Hypertension
Cholesterol
Smoking
Glycaemic control
Albuminuria

24

What us the SIGN guideline blood pressure target for all diabetic patients?

130/70

25

What type of drug should a patient be commenced on if they have positive microalbuminuria?

ACE inhibitor or ARB

26

What is the HbA1c target for good glycaemic control

53mmol/mol

27

What eye diseases are patients with diabetes more susceptible to?

Cataract - clouding of the lens (develops earlier)

Glaucoma- increase in fluid pressure in the eye leading to optic nerve damage. 2 x more common in diabetes

Acute hyperglycaemia- visual blurring (reversible)

28

What are the 4 stages of Retinopathy?

Mild non-proliferative (Background)
Moderate non-proliferative
Severe non-proliferative
Proliferative

29

What would you call a Dot/ Blot/ Flame which appeared on retinal screening?

Haemorrages

30

What do cotton wool spots on retinal screening indicate?

ischaemic areas in the eye