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Flashcards in Anderson Digestive Deck (69)
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1

What condition is parotitis and orchitis associated with?

Mumps

2

What is the difference in muscle between the lower and upper esophagus?

Upper: striated muscle
Lower: smooth muscle

3

What is the most common type of hiatal hernia?

Sliding

4

What are some common causes of esophageal varices?

Portal HTN, alcoholic cirrhosis

5

What is a sequelae of GERD that can lead to adenocarcinoma?

Barrett's esophagus - squamous cells converted to columnar gastric cells

6

What are the three muscle layers of the stomach? What are the two attachments?

Internal - Oblique
Middle - Circular
External - Longitudinal

Lesser and greater omentum (METS can go here)

7

Main artery to stomach? Veins?

Innervation of stomach?

Celiac a.
Gastric v. to portal v.

Sympathetic, splanchnic preganglionics, celiac plexus, parasympathetic (vagus)

8

Chronic or acute gastritis:
NSAIDs, ETOH, smoking, stress
Autoimmune w/ loss of parietal cells and IF
Erosion of superficial epithelium
H. pylori
Most asymptomatic, without erosion

Acute
Chronic
Acute
Chronic
Chronic

9

Gastric or duodenal ulcer:
25% of all PUD
H. pylori ~75%
Better eating
Worse with food
Burning epigastric pain
Assoc w/ MEN or blood type O
NSAIDs, Smoking, Blood type A

Gastric
Both
Duodenal
Gastric
Both
Duodenal
Gastric

10

What is the respective portion of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum?

D: 12 in
J: 40% of small intestine, less blood flow/lymph (peyer's patches)
I: 60% of small intestine, more blood flow/lymph (peyer's patches)

11

Name the pathology:
Paralysis of ileum, often due to vascular obstruction
Vascular compromise of intestine leading to necrosis
Vascular compromise of the GI leading to mucosal inflammation
One segment of SI telescopes into distal segment
General condition with inflammation of the GI

Adynamic Ileus
Intestinal infarction
Ischemic enteritis
Intusesseption
Gastroenteritis

12

What is the name of the longitudinal smooth muscle in the large intestine? What are the pouches in the wall called?

Teniae coli
Haustra

13

Name the colon segments in order.

Ascending, hepatic flexures, transverse, splenic flexures, descending sigmoid

14

What type of muscle is the internal sphincter? how is it controlled?

What type of muscle is the external sphincter? how is it controlled?

Internal: smooth muscle, autonomic control
External: striated, pudendal nerve - conscious control

15

Name the pathology:
Herniation of colon mucosa through muscularis, submucosa, and adventitia.
Inflammation of above herniations
Varicosities inside and outside the anus
Giardia, ameba, viral/bacterial infection
Polypoid masses in proximal colon, METS, M>W, 60-70yo

Diverticulosis
Diverticulitis
Hemorrhoids
Microbial colitis
Colorectal carcinoma

16

Crohn's vs. UC:
Bloody stools
Skip lesions throughout the intestines
Cobblestoning/fistulas
Limited to rectum/colon
Pseudopolyps
Usu. more abdominal pain

UC
Crohn's
Crohn's
UC
UC
Crohn's

17

T/F: 60% of pancreatic cancer is the head.

T

18

What is migratory thrombophlebitis/clots assoc. with pancreatic cancer?

Trousseau's syndrome

19

Name the pathology:
inflammation of the exocrine pancreas, pain radiates to back
toxic damage from acetaminophen
hepatitis, cirrhosis, metabolic disorders
reduction of bile flow

Acute pancreatitis
Acute liver failure
Chronic liver failures
Cholestasis

20

What are some intrahepatic and extrahepatic causes of cholestasis?

Intra - viral, alcohol, drugs, sepsis
Extra - gallstones in common bile duct, neoplasm of pancreatic head, pancreatitis

21

Three sources of blood supply to stomach and their source:

Splenic a. -> short gastric a.
Celiac a. -> left gastric a.
Hepatic a. -> right gastric a.

22

Where does the inferior mesenteric vein drain? (hepatic v. or splenic v.)

Splenic!
Then hepatic

23

The short gastric v. drains into the ______ which drains in the _______.

Gastroepiploic v.
Inf. mesenteric v.

Breaks the rules!!

24

What conditions could lead to portal HTN? What are signs of portal HTN?

Liver cancer, alcoholism/cirrhosis, pregnancy.

Hemorrhoids, esophageal varices, caput medusae

25

What two plexuses make up the enteric nervous system?

Meissner's - submucosal - secretion
Myeneteric (Auerbach's) - motility

26

What does each cell secrete? What is the effect?
G - cells
I - cells
S - Cells

Gastrin - stimulates H+
CCK - stimulates GB contraction, pancreatic enz secretion, inhibits gastric emptying
Secretin - stimulates GB and pancreatic secretions, inhibits gastric emptying

27

What are the two main hormones in the stomach that stimulate H+?

Gastrin and Histamine (type 2 receptors)

28

What stimulates and inhibits gastrin?

(+) amino acids, stomach distention, vagal input
(-) enough H+, secretin, GIP

29

What are the three hormones of the duodenum/jejunum involved in digestion? What stimulates their release?

CCK: (+) AA, fatty acids
Secretin: (+) H+ and fatty acid
Gastrin Inhibitory Peptide (GIP): (+) oral glucose, AA, fatty acid

30

What does gastrin inhibiting peptide (GIP) accompish?

Stimulates insulin secretion, inhibits gastric acid secretion - regulates/balances gastrin/histamine.