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Flashcards in Anderson Immuno/Micro Deck (106)
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1

Acid tolerant organisms...

Lactobacillus, Strep, H. Pylori

2

Endo or exo toxin:
LPS
Denatured by boiling
Antigenic
Form Toxoid
Pyrogenicity
High specificity
Protein
Extracellular
Part of outer membrane

Endo
Exo
Both
Exo
Endo, sometimes Exo
Exo
Exo
Exo
Endo

3

What are the three responses of the body to cold temperature?

Thyroid hormone - increased metabolism
Sympathetic nervous system - activates beta-receptors in brown fat to increase metabolism
Shivering - activated by posterior hypothalamus

4

What part of the hypothalamus is responsible for the body temperature set point?

Anterior hypothalamus

5

How do pyrogens affect the set-point temperature? How do they do that?

They increase it.

IL-1 triggers fever, via prostaglandins

6

How do aspirin and steroids reduce fever?

Aspirin - cox inhibitor - reduce prostaglandins

Steroids - block release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids

7

Heat exhaustion vs. stroke

Exhaustion - dehydrated from sweating, syncope, wet
Stroke - body temp approaches tissue damage, dry

8

All the immune cells mature in the bone marrow except ______ cells.

T-cells

Mature in the thymus

9

Name the immune cell:
Cell-mediated immunity
Ab (Humoral) immunity
Immunological surveillance

T-cells
B-cells
NK Cells, Macrophages

10

What is the classical vs. alternate activation of complement?

Classical - Ag/Ab rxn, strong
Alternate - activated w/o Ag/Ab rxn, weaker, starts at C3 locus

11

Name the interferon:
Made by leukocytes, inhibits tumor cell growth, stimulates NK cells
Made by fibroblasts
Made by T-cells, activates NK, killer-T cells, activates phagocytic cells

IF- alpha
IF - beta
IF -gamma

12

What does TNF-alpha do? TNF-beta?

Alpha - stimulates apoptosis
Beta - induces IL-10

13

Name the interleukin:
Fever, t-cell proliferation
Promote cellular immunity, secreted by CD4
Promote humoral immunity, secreted by CD4
Promote humoral immunity, secreted by T-cells
Fibroblast secretion, megakaryocyte potentiator

IL-1
IL-2
IL-4 and 5
IL-10
IL-11

14

Which MHC:
Present viral antigen to CD8, activate CD8
Docking protein on MO which hooks to a CD4

MHC1
MHC2

15

Definition: Incomplete antigen, unable to stimulate immune response on its own. Reacts with other proteins making them antigenic.

Haptens

16

Name the antibody and their response:
"Allergy"
"Secretory"
"First Responder"
"Long Term"

IgE - Type 1 Hypersensitivity, parasitic infection
IgA - Mucosal, dimer
IgM - basis for ABO-blood type antigen rxn, short-lived, pentamer
IgG - MC, focuses NK cells, immunization

17

Name the hypersensitivity rxn:
Immune complex mediated
Antibody mediated
IgE mediated, anaphylaxis
Delayed, cytotoxic type

Type III, humoral
Type II, humoral
Type I, humoral
Type IV, cell-mediated (e.g. PPD TB test)

18

Name the AI dz:
Thymic hypoplasia, absences of T-cell immunity
Excessive systemic collagen/fibrosis of microvasculature
AI destruction of salivary/lacrimal glands
Type III and II auto-Ab, remitt/relapse, ANA
Inflammatory myopathy w/ skin involvement
Inflammatory myopathy w/o skin involvement

DiGeorge's Syndrome
Scleroderma/Systemic Sclerosis
Sjogren's Syndrome
SLE
Dermatomyositis
Polymyositis

19

What are the primary and secondary responses of T-cells?

Primary: T-cells are activated by APC, signaled directly to site of antigen

Secondary: T-cells cloned and stored in lymph nodes

20

What are the primary and secondary responses of B-cells?

Primary: Interleukin, prostaglandin, TNF, IF production
Activate complement, and draw MO to area

Secondary: memory B-cells respond, IgG produced, complement activated

21

Beta-hemolytic vs. alpha-hemolytic

Beta - complete hemolysis
Alpha - incomplete hemolysis

22

T/F: Gram + cocci tend to have NO flagella and are NON-motile, and NON-spore-forming.

T

23

Staph or Strep:
Beta-hemolytic
Toxic Shock Syndrome, Food Poisoning
Impetigo
Coagulase positive
ASO titer +

Staph and Strep
Staph
Staph or Strep
Staph
Strep

24

Type of staph that is coagulase negative and usually due to surgical or wound infections and can cause subacute endocarditis.

S. epidermidis

25

Type of staph that is the least common and associated with UTIs. Also coagulase negative.

S. saprophyticus

26

What type of strep is grp A? grp B? What is each more closely associated with?

S. pyogenes - pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever
S. agalactiae - post-partum infection, neonatal sepsis/meningitis

27

Name the strep:
Pneumonia, sinusitis, meningitis, otitis media
Endocarditis, bacteremia, dental caries

S. pneumoniae
S. viridans

28

What family are the Gm - diplococci?

Neiserria

29

MC STD in US? Second MC?

Chlamydia
N. gonorrhea

30

T/F: N. gonorrhea produces an IgG that neutralizes the IgA of humans.

N. gonorrhea produces a neutralizing IgA