Flashcards in Anderson Immuno/Micro Deck (106)
Acid tolerant organisms...
Lactobacillus, Strep, H. Pylori
Endo or exo toxin:
Denatured by boiling
Part of outer membrane
Endo, sometimes Exo
What are the three responses of the body to cold temperature?
Thyroid hormone - increased metabolism
Sympathetic nervous system - activates beta-receptors in brown fat to increase metabolism
Shivering - activated by posterior hypothalamus
What part of the hypothalamus is responsible for the body temperature set point?
How do pyrogens affect the set-point temperature? How do they do that?
They increase it.
IL-1 triggers fever, via prostaglandins
How do aspirin and steroids reduce fever?
Aspirin - cox inhibitor - reduce prostaglandins
Steroids - block release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids
Heat exhaustion vs. stroke
Exhaustion - dehydrated from sweating, syncope, wet
Stroke - body temp approaches tissue damage, dry
All the immune cells mature in the bone marrow except ______ cells.
Mature in the thymus
Name the immune cell:
Ab (Humoral) immunity
NK Cells, Macrophages
What is the classical vs. alternate activation of complement?
Classical - Ag/Ab rxn, strong
Alternate - activated w/o Ag/Ab rxn, weaker, starts at C3 locus
Name the interferon:
Made by leukocytes, inhibits tumor cell growth, stimulates NK cells
Made by fibroblasts
Made by T-cells, activates NK, killer-T cells, activates phagocytic cells
IF - beta
What does TNF-alpha do? TNF-beta?
Alpha - stimulates apoptosis
Beta - induces IL-10
Name the interleukin:
Fever, t-cell proliferation
Promote cellular immunity, secreted by CD4
Promote humoral immunity, secreted by CD4
Promote humoral immunity, secreted by T-cells
Fibroblast secretion, megakaryocyte potentiator
IL-4 and 5
Present viral antigen to CD8, activate CD8
Docking protein on MO which hooks to a CD4
Definition: Incomplete antigen, unable to stimulate immune response on its own. Reacts with other proteins making them antigenic.
Name the antibody and their response:
IgE - Type 1 Hypersensitivity, parasitic infection
IgA - Mucosal, dimer
IgM - basis for ABO-blood type antigen rxn, short-lived, pentamer
IgG - MC, focuses NK cells, immunization
Name the hypersensitivity rxn:
Immune complex mediated
IgE mediated, anaphylaxis
Delayed, cytotoxic type
Type III, humoral
Type II, humoral
Type I, humoral
Type IV, cell-mediated (e.g. PPD TB test)
Name the AI dz:
Thymic hypoplasia, absences of T-cell immunity
Excessive systemic collagen/fibrosis of microvasculature
AI destruction of salivary/lacrimal glands
Type III and II auto-Ab, remitt/relapse, ANA
Inflammatory myopathy w/ skin involvement
Inflammatory myopathy w/o skin involvement
What are the primary and secondary responses of T-cells?
Primary: T-cells are activated by APC, signaled directly to site of antigen
Secondary: T-cells cloned and stored in lymph nodes
What are the primary and secondary responses of B-cells?
Primary: Interleukin, prostaglandin, TNF, IF production
Activate complement, and draw MO to area
Secondary: memory B-cells respond, IgG produced, complement activated
Beta-hemolytic vs. alpha-hemolytic
Beta - complete hemolysis
Alpha - incomplete hemolysis
T/F: Gram + cocci tend to have NO flagella and are NON-motile, and NON-spore-forming.
Staph or Strep:
Toxic Shock Syndrome, Food Poisoning
ASO titer +
Staph and Strep
Staph or Strep
Type of staph that is coagulase negative and usually due to surgical or wound infections and can cause subacute endocarditis.
Type of staph that is the least common and associated with UTIs. Also coagulase negative.
What type of strep is grp A? grp B? What is each more closely associated with?
S. pyogenes - pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever
S. agalactiae - post-partum infection, neonatal sepsis/meningitis
Name the strep:
Pneumonia, sinusitis, meningitis, otitis media
Endocarditis, bacteremia, dental caries
What family are the Gm - diplococci?
MC STD in US? Second MC?