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Flashcards in Anderson Neuro Deck (89)
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1

Name the pathology:
Congenital communication between artery and vein, may occur anywhere, often cause chronic HA

AVM (arteriovenous malformation)

2

Name the pathology:
Congenital, anterior middle and posterior communicating arteries (circle of willis), sudden excruciating HA

Berry aneurysm

3

Name the pathology:
Results from diastolic BP over 120, grade 4 retinal changes, confusion/drowsiness/HA/nausea. Complications include rupture and hemorrhage

Hypertensive encephalopathy

4

Which two venous sinuses are often responsible for infections leading encephalitis?

Pterygoid plexus and cavernous sinus (drain cellulitis, sinusitis, ear infections)

5

Name the histology:
Acute necrosis of neurons, change before death of neurons

Red neurons

6

Name the virus related to the cellular inclusion:
Cowdry body
Negri body

Herpes
Rabies

7

Name the CN 1-12

Olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, auditory, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, hypoglossal

8

Which CN stem from midbrain?

3-4

9

Which CN stem from pons?

5-8

10

Which CN stem from medulla?

9-12

11

What is the order of the brain stem top to bottom?

Midbrain, pons, medulla, spinal cord

12

Which CN provides olfaction to the nose? Sensation/pain stimulus?

CN I

CN V

13

What secondary messenger is used in olfaction? In vision?

cAMP (most of the brain uses this)

cGMP (unique to vision)

14

When pupils react to light, what CN is being tested?

CN 2 - afferent fibers respond to light
CN 3 - efferent fibers contract sphincter pupillae muscles

15

Rods vs. Cones

Rods: night vision, higher sens, lower activity
Cones: color vision, lower sens, high activity

16

Describe the flow of aqueous humor in the eye.

1) Produced by the ciliary body
2) Flow out to anterior chamber between pupillary sphincter muscle and lense
3) Drain through the trabecular meshwork and out the Canal of Schlemm

17

Cones and rods face which direction with respect to the retina?

They face the pigmented layer, same direction as the light coming in.

18

What type of visual defect would occur with the following lesions?
Between the optic chiasm and left eye.
In the optic chiasm.
Between the optic chiasm and the lateral geniculate body on the left.

Anopsia of the left eye
Lateral (temporal) hemianopsia bilaterally
Right sided hemianopsia bilaterally

19

Accommodation of lens to near and far vision.

Near - ciliary muscle contracted, zonula fibers relaxes, lens rounded, focal length short. (sympathetic)

Far- ciliary muscle relaxed, zonula fibers tense, lens flat, focal length far (parasympathetic)

20

What muscle does CN4 control and what does it do? CN6?

CN4: Sup Oblique - down and out movement of eye

CN6: Lat Rectus m. - lateral eye movement

21

What are the three divisions of CN V?

Opthalmic, maxillary, mandibular

22

What CN are tested in the "Corneal Blink Reflex"?

CN-5: Sensory afferent
CN-7: Motor efferent

23

What two foramen does CN 7 go through? How does this relate to Bell's palsy?

Stylomastoid foramen and internal acoustic meatus.

Prior to onset of Bell's palsy - hyperlacrimation and salivation. Proposed mechanism swelling in and around stylomastoid foramen.

24

What activities is CN 9 responsible for?

Swallowing, parotid gland, post 1/3 of tongue (touch/taste)

Post tongue usually sour/bitter

25

What CN is responsible for touching your tongue to the roof of your mouth?

CN 10

26

What CN provides taste to front 2/3 of tongue? Touch?

CN 7 - taste, ant tongue usually salty/sweet

CN 5 - touch

27

What are the two branches of CN8?

Vestibular and cochlear

28

In pathological nystagmus, what causes horizontal nystagmus? vertical nystagmus?

Horizontal - vestibular dz
Vertical - brainstem dz

29

Na+ rich: perilymph or endolymph
K+ rich: perilymph or endolymph

perilymph
endolymph

30

Lateral geniculate body: vision or hearing
Medial geniculate body: vision or hearing

Vision
Hearing