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Flashcards in Anderson Endo Deck (23)
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1

What is the origin of the posterior vs. anterior pituitary?

Anterior: glandular tissue: adeno hypothesis
Pituitary: neurologic tissue: neuro hpothesis

2

What are the two hormone mechanisms that are used by the endocrine system to affect cells?

Direct hormone activation - to nucleus
Secondary messenger system - through cytosol

3

What condition occurs when the posterior pituitary does not proliferate ADH?

Diabetes Insipidus

4

What condition can occur postpartum when there is an ischemic change in the pituitary with the loss of blood supply?

Sheehan's syndrome

5

What is the most hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary?

Prolactinoma

6

What are the layers of the adrenal cortex and what do they produce?

Zona glomerulosa - aldosterone (mineralocorticoids)
Zona fasciculata - cortisol (glucocorticoids)
Zona reticularis - sex hormones (glucocorticoids)

7

What does the adrenal medulla produce?

Epi, NE

8

What enzyme converts T3 to T4?

5-Deiodinase

9

What hormones are released by the anterior pituitary? posterior pituitary?

Anterior: ACTH, TSH, LH, FSH, Growth Hormone, Prolactin
Posterior: Oxytocin, ADH

10

Name the thyroid pathology:
Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin, tachy, lid retraction/lag
Fatigue, cold intolerance, dry skin, constipation
Autoimmune hypothyroid
Self-limiting, painful inflammation of thyroid, goes hyper-hypo-eu thyroid

Hyperthyroid - Grave's Dz
Hypothyroid - Hashimoto's or Iodine Def
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Dequervain's Subacute Granulmatous Thyroiditis

11

Rock hard, woody thyroid, mimics carcinoma

Reidel's Thyroiditis

12

MC carcinoma of the thyroid. What body is found histologically?

Papillary Carcinoma
Psammoma bodies

13

Calcitonin or Parathyroid hormone:
Come from the parafollicular cells
Increases Ca, Na, K excretion in kidney, dec excretion Mg
Increases Ca absorption in gut via Vit D
Inhibits bone resorption/osteoclasts
Decreases Ca excretion
Comes from the parathyroid

Calcitonin
Calcitonin
Parathyroid
Calcitonin
Parathyroid
Parathyroid

14

T/F: Calcitonin increases blood Ca and PTH decreases blood Ca.

F.
Calcitonin - decreases blood Ca, increases bone Ca
PTH - increases blood Ca, decreases bone Ca

15

Tumor of adrenal medulla, secretes catecholamines. High VMA in serum.

Pheochromocytoma

16

Childhood tumor of adrenal medulla,

Neuroblastoma

17

Name the adrenal pathology:
autoimmune, weakness, fatigue, hyperpigmentation
truncal obesity, mood faces, buffalo hump
Low plasma renin and K, and high Na and aldosterone

Addison's dz
Cushings's dz
Conn's syndrome - aldosterone secreting tumor

18

T/F: The adrenal medulla produces mostly Epi and a little NE.

T

19

What is the mother of all steroids?

Cholesterol - Pregnenolone

20

T/F: Estrogen and testosterone are competitive inhibitors of one another because their structures are so similar.

T

21

Name the hormone:
Synthesized in the zona glomerulosa, acts in distal tubule for resorption of Na+, pumps K+ and H+ out, stimulated by ACTH, hyperkalemia, angiotensin 2

Aldosterone

22

Name the pancreatic cell:
Secretes glucagon
Secretes insulin
Secretes somatostatin
Secretes pancreatic polypeptide

Alpha cells
Beta cells
Delta cells
PP cells

23

Name the endocrine pathology:
Myasthenia gravis - lymphoid follicles in thymus
Aplasia/hypoplasia of thymus, parathyroid development failure
Tumor in pancreas secretes gastrin
Beta cell tumor, produces hypoglycemia
Insulin dependent, juvenile onset
Insulin resistance, adult onset

Thymic hyperplasia
DiGeorge syndrome
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Insulinoma
DM Type I
DM Type II