Flashcards in Anderson Endo Deck (23)
What is the origin of the posterior vs. anterior pituitary?
Anterior: glandular tissue: adeno hypothesis
Pituitary: neurologic tissue: neuro hpothesis
What are the two hormone mechanisms that are used by the endocrine system to affect cells?
Direct hormone activation - to nucleus
Secondary messenger system - through cytosol
What condition occurs when the posterior pituitary does not proliferate ADH?
What condition can occur postpartum when there is an ischemic change in the pituitary with the loss of blood supply?
What is the most hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary?
What are the layers of the adrenal cortex and what do they produce?
Zona glomerulosa - aldosterone (mineralocorticoids)
Zona fasciculata - cortisol (glucocorticoids)
Zona reticularis - sex hormones (glucocorticoids)
What does the adrenal medulla produce?
What enzyme converts T3 to T4?
What hormones are released by the anterior pituitary? posterior pituitary?
Anterior: ACTH, TSH, LH, FSH, Growth Hormone, Prolactin
Posterior: Oxytocin, ADH
Name the thyroid pathology:
Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin, tachy, lid retraction/lag
Fatigue, cold intolerance, dry skin, constipation
Self-limiting, painful inflammation of thyroid, goes hyper-hypo-eu thyroid
Hyperthyroid - Grave's Dz
Hypothyroid - Hashimoto's or Iodine Def
Dequervain's Subacute Granulmatous Thyroiditis
Rock hard, woody thyroid, mimics carcinoma
MC carcinoma of the thyroid. What body is found histologically?
Calcitonin or Parathyroid hormone:
Come from the parafollicular cells
Increases Ca, Na, K excretion in kidney, dec excretion Mg
Increases Ca absorption in gut via Vit D
Inhibits bone resorption/osteoclasts
Decreases Ca excretion
Comes from the parathyroid
T/F: Calcitonin increases blood Ca and PTH decreases blood Ca.
Calcitonin - decreases blood Ca, increases bone Ca
PTH - increases blood Ca, decreases bone Ca
Tumor of adrenal medulla, secretes catecholamines. High VMA in serum.
Childhood tumor of adrenal medulla,
Name the adrenal pathology:
autoimmune, weakness, fatigue, hyperpigmentation
truncal obesity, mood faces, buffalo hump
Low plasma renin and K, and high Na and aldosterone
Conn's syndrome - aldosterone secreting tumor
T/F: The adrenal medulla produces mostly Epi and a little NE.
What is the mother of all steroids?
Cholesterol - Pregnenolone
T/F: Estrogen and testosterone are competitive inhibitors of one another because their structures are so similar.
Name the hormone:
Synthesized in the zona glomerulosa, acts in distal tubule for resorption of Na+, pumps K+ and H+ out, stimulated by ACTH, hyperkalemia, angiotensin 2
Name the pancreatic cell:
Secretes pancreatic polypeptide