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Flashcards in Anderson Intro 1 Deck (86)
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1

Which sugars make maltose? What is the bond?

Glucose + glucose. alpha1-4

2

Which sugars make lactose? What is the bond?

Galactose + glucose. beta1-4

3

What sugars make sucrose? What is the bond?

Glucose + fructose. alpha1-beta2

4

What is the only beta linkage human (babies) can break down?

Lactose - lactase specific

5

What sugars make up glycogen? What is the bond

Multiple glucoses. Chains are alpha1-4, and branching are alpha1-6.

6

Define glycogen.

Storage form of glucose in animals. Highly branched (more than amylopectin)

7

Define inulin

Tuber starch. Hydrolyzed fructose. Easily soluble in warm water.

8

Define cellulose

Plant starch/insoluble fiber. beta1-4.

9

Monosaccharide absorption

Glucose and Galactose - Na+ cotransporter
Fructose - facilitated diffusion

10

How much ATP does one sugar molecule produce?

36-38 ATP

11

B2 name and role in TCA

Riboflavin, FAD

12

B1 name and role in TCA

Thiamine, active form - thiamin diphosphate (alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase)

13

B3 name and role in TCA

Niacin, NAD

14

B5 name and role in TCA

Pantothenic acid, co-enzyme A

15

Where in the Kreb cycle is most of the ATP created?

Oxidative phosphorylation.

16

In oxidative phosphorylation, which membrane (inner/outer) is most active?

Inner!

17

What is the rate limiting enzyme in glycolysis?

Phosphofructokinase (requires 1 ATP)

18

Induction (first step) enzymes for glycolysis and where they are found?

Hexokinase - all tissues, muscles
Glucokinase - liver/pancreas

19

Aerobic glycolysis ends in...

Pyruvate (Net 2 ATP)

20

Anaerobic glycolysis ends in...

Lactate (Net 2 ATP, no more produced)

21

What stimulates/inhibits glycolysis?

Insulin - stimulates
ATP - inhibits

22

What inhibits PFK?

ATP and citrate

23

What converts phospheno-pyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate?

Pyruvate kinase (creates 2 ATP)

24

What converts pyruvate to acetyl-coA?

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (final step to TCA)

25

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase lab values indicate what?

Anaerobic glycolysis making too much lactic acid.

26

What four enzymes are required for gluconeogenesis?

Mitochondria: Pyruvate carboxylase (pyruvate to oxaloacetate)
*malate shuttle*
Cytosol: Pyruvate carboxykinase (oxaloacetate to PEP)
F-1,6-Diphosphatase (F-1,6-P to F-6-P)
Glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P to Glucose)

27

What stimulates/inhibits gluconeogenesis?

Epinephrine, Glucagon, Cortisol - stimulates
Insulin - inhibits

28

What is the rate limiting step of gluconeogenesis?

Fructose-1,6-diphosphates - inhibited by F6P

29

What is the use of liver glycogen? What is the use of muscle glycogen?

Liver: Blood glucose maintenance, usually between meals. (12-18hr fast)

Muscle: Vigorous exercise, starvation.

30

What is the important enzyme that takes glucose-6-phosphate into the glycogenesis reaction?

Phosphoglucomutase (G6P to G-1,6-Bis-phosphate)

Requires Mg