Flashcards in Anderson Intro 1 Deck (86)
Which sugars make maltose? What is the bond?
Glucose + glucose. alpha1-4
Which sugars make lactose? What is the bond?
Galactose + glucose. beta1-4
What sugars make sucrose? What is the bond?
Glucose + fructose. alpha1-beta2
What is the only beta linkage human (babies) can break down?
Lactose - lactase specific
What sugars make up glycogen? What is the bond
Multiple glucoses. Chains are alpha1-4, and branching are alpha1-6.
Storage form of glucose in animals. Highly branched (more than amylopectin)
Tuber starch. Hydrolyzed fructose. Easily soluble in warm water.
Plant starch/insoluble fiber. beta1-4.
Glucose and Galactose - Na+ cotransporter
Fructose - facilitated diffusion
How much ATP does one sugar molecule produce?
B2 name and role in TCA
B1 name and role in TCA
Thiamine, active form - thiamin diphosphate (alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase)
B3 name and role in TCA
B5 name and role in TCA
Pantothenic acid, co-enzyme A
Where in the Kreb cycle is most of the ATP created?
In oxidative phosphorylation, which membrane (inner/outer) is most active?
What is the rate limiting enzyme in glycolysis?
Phosphofructokinase (requires 1 ATP)
Induction (first step) enzymes for glycolysis and where they are found?
Hexokinase - all tissues, muscles
Glucokinase - liver/pancreas
Aerobic glycolysis ends in...
Pyruvate (Net 2 ATP)
Anaerobic glycolysis ends in...
Lactate (Net 2 ATP, no more produced)
What stimulates/inhibits glycolysis?
Insulin - stimulates
ATP - inhibits
What inhibits PFK?
ATP and citrate
What converts phospheno-pyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate?
Pyruvate kinase (creates 2 ATP)
What converts pyruvate to acetyl-coA?
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (final step to TCA)
Elevated lactate dehydrogenase lab values indicate what?
Anaerobic glycolysis making too much lactic acid.
What four enzymes are required for gluconeogenesis?
Mitochondria: Pyruvate carboxylase (pyruvate to oxaloacetate)
Cytosol: Pyruvate carboxykinase (oxaloacetate to PEP)
F-1,6-Diphosphatase (F-1,6-P to F-6-P)
Glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P to Glucose)
What stimulates/inhibits gluconeogenesis?
Epinephrine, Glucagon, Cortisol - stimulates
Insulin - inhibits
What is the rate limiting step of gluconeogenesis?
Fructose-1,6-diphosphates - inhibited by F6P
What is the use of liver glycogen? What is the use of muscle glycogen?
Liver: Blood glucose maintenance, usually between meals. (12-18hr fast)
Muscle: Vigorous exercise, starvation.