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Flashcards in Anderson Intro 2 Deck (20)
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1

Primary intracellular ion...

K+

2

Primary extracellular ion...

Na+

3

What is the exchange rate for the sodium-potassium pump? Does it require ATP? Against or with the gradient?

3 Na+ out for every 2 K+ in
Use ATP
Against gradient

4

What ion is used in co-transport of glucose?

Na+, very common in digestion

5

Endocytosis vs. extocytosis

Endo: pinocytosis - engulfing small particles and extracellular fluid in a vesicle
Phagocytosis- same, but material ingested is larger

Exo: opposite of endo (e.g. chylomicrons)

6

Osmolarity formula

g (number of particles in solution) x C (concentration mol/L)

7

Diffusion potential definition.

Size depends on the concentration gradient.
Sign depends on the charge of the ion diffusing.

8

Equilibrium potential definition.

Point at which you have the same diffusion potential on each side.

9

Resting membrane potential definition.

Sum of diffusion potentials.

10

Where does synthesis of small neurotransmitters occur (GABA, glycine, glutamate, serotonin, dopa, NE)?

Cytosol of the presynaptic terminal

11

Where does synthesis of large neurotransmitters occur (TSH, ACTH)?

In the Neuronal Cell Body, by the ribosomes

12

Adrenergic (NE/Epi) alpha-receptors are excitatory except in the...

GI tract

13

Adrenergic (NE/Epi) beta-receptors are inhibitory except in the...

Heart

14

Which cholinergic (Ach) receptors are stimulated by nicotine? Where are they located?

Nicotinic

Autonomic, parasympathetic, and sympathetic ganglia; adrenal medulla; neuromuscluar junction.

15

Which cholinergic receptors are stimulated by muscarine? Where are they located?

Muscarinic

Postsynaptic parasympathetic, sweat glands

16

Beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptor actions.

Beta-1: postsynaptic sympathetic (cardiac) - excitatory

Beta-2: postsynaptic sympathetic (all others) - inhibitory (e.g. lungs vasodilate and bronchodilate)

17

Alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor actions.

Alpha-1: postsynaptic sympathetic - excitatory (vessels, lumens) EXCEPT in the GI

Alpha-2: presynaptic sympathetic - decrease catecholamine release
CNS- decrease sympathetic tone

18

What are some secondary messengers? What is their job?

cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, tyrosine kinase

Relay primary message throughout cell to create respective response.

19

Irreversible =
Reversible =

Degeneration (cloudy swelling, fatty, hyalin, myxotamous)
Necrosis (Coagulation, Caseous, Liquefaction, Fat)

20

Name that tissue type for :
Osteoma
Chondroma
Angioma
Leiomyoma
Rhabdomyoma
Lipoma

Bone
Cartilage
Vacular
Smooth muscle
Skeletal muscle
Fat