Flashcards in Anderson Intro 2 Deck (20)
Primary intracellular ion...
Primary extracellular ion...
What is the exchange rate for the sodium-potassium pump? Does it require ATP? Against or with the gradient?
3 Na+ out for every 2 K+ in
What ion is used in co-transport of glucose?
Na+, very common in digestion
Endocytosis vs. extocytosis
Endo: pinocytosis - engulfing small particles and extracellular fluid in a vesicle
Phagocytosis- same, but material ingested is larger
Exo: opposite of endo (e.g. chylomicrons)
g (number of particles in solution) x C (concentration mol/L)
Diffusion potential definition.
Size depends on the concentration gradient.
Sign depends on the charge of the ion diffusing.
Equilibrium potential definition.
Point at which you have the same diffusion potential on each side.
Resting membrane potential definition.
Sum of diffusion potentials.
Where does synthesis of small neurotransmitters occur (GABA, glycine, glutamate, serotonin, dopa, NE)?
Cytosol of the presynaptic terminal
Where does synthesis of large neurotransmitters occur (TSH, ACTH)?
In the Neuronal Cell Body, by the ribosomes
Adrenergic (NE/Epi) alpha-receptors are excitatory except in the...
Adrenergic (NE/Epi) beta-receptors are inhibitory except in the...
Which cholinergic (Ach) receptors are stimulated by nicotine? Where are they located?
Autonomic, parasympathetic, and sympathetic ganglia; adrenal medulla; neuromuscluar junction.
Which cholinergic receptors are stimulated by muscarine? Where are they located?
Postsynaptic parasympathetic, sweat glands
Beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptor actions.
Beta-1: postsynaptic sympathetic (cardiac) - excitatory
Beta-2: postsynaptic sympathetic (all others) - inhibitory (e.g. lungs vasodilate and bronchodilate)
Alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor actions.
Alpha-1: postsynaptic sympathetic - excitatory (vessels, lumens) EXCEPT in the GI
Alpha-2: presynaptic sympathetic - decrease catecholamine release
CNS- decrease sympathetic tone
What are some secondary messengers? What is their job?
cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, tyrosine kinase
Relay primary message throughout cell to create respective response.
Degeneration (cloudy swelling, fatty, hyalin, myxotamous)
Necrosis (Coagulation, Caseous, Liquefaction, Fat)