Flashcards in Anderson Cardio Deck (87)
What is the most common cardiac congenital defect?
Interventricular Septal Defect
SSX: asymptomatic holosystolic murmur or CHF, increase risk of endocarditis
What four abnormalities form the Tetralogy of Fallot?
VSD, dextraposed aorta overriding the VSD, pulmonic stenosis, RV hypertrophy
What condition may a bicuspid aortic valve lead to later in life?
Between S1 and S2
Between S2 and S1
Closure of mitral/tricuspid valves
Closures of aortic/pulmonic valves
Right and left coronary arteries fill during _________. (diastole or systole)
Diastole - blood falls down into the vasculature.
Which is larger right or left coronary artery? What part of the heart do they feed?
Right is larger and supplies right and posterior left ventricle.
Left carries less blood , but divides and fess the anterior and lateral portions of the left ventricle.
Describe the conduction of the heart starting with the SA node and the location.
SA node - right atrium
AV node - right atrium
Right bundle of his - right ventricle (unifascicular)
Left bundle of his - left ventricle (bifascicular)
Acute or Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis:
Low virulence organism
What infection precedes rheumatic heart dz?
Grp A beta-hemolytic strep
AI, endocarditis esp of left valves, mitral stenosis, migratory polyarthritis
What histological finding is pathognomonic for rheumatic heart dz?
What is the MC valve disease?
Mitral Valve Prolapse
What condition is often the result of arteriosclerosis and a congenitally bicuspid aortic valve?
What is the MC cause of myocarditis?
Viral infection (e.g. coxsackie B, flu, CMV, ECHO)
List common organisms that cause myocarditis:
Staph, strep, cornebacterium diptheria
Typhus, Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever
Cocksackie B, Flu, CMV, ECHO
Toxoplasmosis, Trypansosoma cruzi, Trichinosis
Effects: Flabby ventricular myocardium, four chamber dilation, endocardium and valves unaffected, may be asymptomatic or get CHF.
What is the MC form of cardiomyopathies?
Dilated - young adults. Bilateral heart failure.
SSX: acute onset exertional intolerance (DOE)
What are the three forms of cardiomyopathy?
Dilated, restrictive, hypertrophic
Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subacute Stenosis (IHSS) pathology.
Interventricular septum is hypertrophies/anterior leaflet of mitral valve misplaced. Outflow is restricted. Wall of left ventricle hypertrophied.
What is restrictive cardiomyopathy usually secondary to?
Lysosomal storage disease or connective tissue/deposition disease. E.g. Hurler's, Pompe's, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis.
Term for blood in the pericardial sac. Often occurs with MI where there is traumatic perforation.
Hemopericardium - causes cardiac tamponade
Where does METS to the heart mostly come from?
Name the node:
Right vagus nerve
Left vagus nerve
Describe the process of muscle contraction.
Action potential - Ca influx - Ca binds Tp/Tm - actin/myosin binding - ATP to ADP - muscle contraction - relaxation - Ca returns to sarcoplasm via T-tubules
What two enzymes are responsible for phosphorylating actin/myosin?
Calmodium and light chain kinase
How do you modulate cardiac muscle strength?
Manipulating Ca channels - cAMP mechanism
Cardiac muscle does not recruit individual muscle units, syncytium - the whole thing contracts.
Name the muscle type: (cardiac/smooth/skeletal)
Recruitment of motor units/AP frequency regulates strength
AP duration regulates strength
Membrane potential/biochemical modulation of Ca sens regulates strength
What is the longest vein in the body? Where does it come off of?
The great saphenous vein.
Come off femoral vein.
Arteriosclerosis vs. Atherosclerosis
Arteriosclerosis - thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial wall. Literal hardening of arteries
Atherosclerosis - intimal thickening and lipid deposition
Name the pathology: vasculitis of small/medium cranial vessels especially the temporal artery. Genetic predisposition, HA, pain tenderness, facial pain.
What is the most serious complication?
Name the pathology: MC in young men, heave smokers, nodular phlebitis, instep claudication, gangrene, inflammation of arteries of extremeties