Anderson Cardio Flashcards Preview

NPLEX I > Anderson Cardio > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anderson Cardio Deck (87)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the most common cardiac congenital defect?

Interventricular Septal Defect

SSX: asymptomatic holosystolic murmur or CHF, increase risk of endocarditis

2

What four abnormalities form the Tetralogy of Fallot?

VSD, dextraposed aorta overriding the VSD, pulmonic stenosis, RV hypertrophy

3

What condition may a bicuspid aortic valve lead to later in life?

Aortic stenosis

4

What's happening?
S1
S2
Between S1 and S2
Between S2 and S1

Closure of mitral/tricuspid valves
Closures of aortic/pulmonic valves
Systole
Diastole

5

Right and left coronary arteries fill during _________. (diastole or systole)

Diastole - blood falls down into the vasculature.

6

Which is larger right or left coronary artery? What part of the heart do they feed?

Right is larger and supplies right and posterior left ventricle.

Left carries less blood , but divides and fess the anterior and lateral portions of the left ventricle.

7

Describe the conduction of the heart starting with the SA node and the location.

SA node - right atrium
AV node - right atrium
Right bundle of his - right ventricle (unifascicular)
Left bundle of his - left ventricle (bifascicular)

8

Acute or Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis:
More rare
Abnormal heart
Normal Heart
Virulent organisms
Low virulence organism

Acute
Subacute
Acute
Acute
Subacute

9

What infection precedes rheumatic heart dz?

Grp A beta-hemolytic strep

AI, endocarditis esp of left valves, mitral stenosis, migratory polyarthritis

10

What histological finding is pathognomonic for rheumatic heart dz?

Aschoff bodies.

11

What is the MC valve disease?

Mitral Valve Prolapse

12

What condition is often the result of arteriosclerosis and a congenitally bicuspid aortic valve?

Aortic stenosis

13

What is the MC cause of myocarditis?

Viral infection (e.g. coxsackie B, flu, CMV, ECHO)

14

List common organisms that cause myocarditis:
Bacterial
Rickettsial
Viral
Parasitic
Immune

Staph, strep, cornebacterium diptheria
Typhus, Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever
Cocksackie B, Flu, CMV, ECHO
Toxoplasmosis, Trypansosoma cruzi, Trichinosis
SLE, Scleroderma

Effects: Flabby ventricular myocardium, four chamber dilation, endocardium and valves unaffected, may be asymptomatic or get CHF.

15

What is the MC form of cardiomyopathies?

Dilated - young adults. Bilateral heart failure.

SSX: acute onset exertional intolerance (DOE)

16

What are the three forms of cardiomyopathy?

Dilated, restrictive, hypertrophic

17

Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subacute Stenosis (IHSS) pathology.

Interventricular septum is hypertrophies/anterior leaflet of mitral valve misplaced. Outflow is restricted. Wall of left ventricle hypertrophied.

18

What is restrictive cardiomyopathy usually secondary to?

Lysosomal storage disease or connective tissue/deposition disease. E.g. Hurler's, Pompe's, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis.

19

Term for blood in the pericardial sac. Often occurs with MI where there is traumatic perforation.

Hemopericardium - causes cardiac tamponade

20

Where does METS to the heart mostly come from?

Lungs

21

Name the node:
Right vagus nerve
Left vagus nerve

SA
AV

22

Describe the process of muscle contraction.

Action potential - Ca influx - Ca binds Tp/Tm - actin/myosin binding - ATP to ADP - muscle contraction - relaxation - Ca returns to sarcoplasm via T-tubules

23

What two enzymes are responsible for phosphorylating actin/myosin?

Calmodium and light chain kinase

24

How do you modulate cardiac muscle strength?

Manipulating Ca channels - cAMP mechanism

Cardiac muscle does not recruit individual muscle units, syncytium - the whole thing contracts.

25

Name the muscle type: (cardiac/smooth/skeletal)
Recruitment of motor units/AP frequency regulates strength

AP duration regulates strength

Membrane potential/biochemical modulation of Ca sens regulates strength

Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth

26

What is the longest vein in the body? Where does it come off of?

The great saphenous vein.
Come off femoral vein.

27

Arteriosclerosis vs. Atherosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis - thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial wall. Literal hardening of arteries

Atherosclerosis - intimal thickening and lipid deposition

28

Name the pathology: vasculitis of small/medium cranial vessels especially the temporal artery. Genetic predisposition, HA, pain tenderness, facial pain.

What is the most serious complication?

Temporal Arteritis

Blindness

29

Name the pathology: MC in young men, heave smokers, nodular phlebitis, instep claudication, gangrene, inflammation of arteries of extremeties

Thromboangiitis Obliterans/Buerger's

30

Idiopathic vascular spasm causing extremities to turn white/blue/black.

Raynaud's dz