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Flashcards in Anderson Nephro Deck (17)
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1

Afferent or Efferent arteriole:
Sensitive to Epinephrine
Sensitive to Angiotensin-2
Increases glomerular pressure under influence of above
Decreases glomerular pressure/filtration ""

Afferent
Efferent
Efferent
Afferent

2

What CNS areas are responsible for osmolarity? For volume control? What are the responses?

Osmolarity: Hypothalamus - ADH release, increased thirst
Volume control: Baroreceptors and Macula Densa - sympathetic activation, renin released from JGA

3

What percentage of Na is taken up in each part of the nephron and what is the transporter?
Proximal convoluted tubule
Thick ascending loop
Distal convoluted tubule

2/3 - via co-transport w/ Glucose, AA, and PO4 also countertransport exchanging H+/Na+
25% - via Na-K-Cl cotransport
8% - via Na-Cl cotransport

4

What percentage of Kd is taken up in each part of the nephron and what is the transporter?
Proximal convoluted tubule
Thick ascending loop
Distal convoluted tubule

67% - cotransport with Na and H2O
20% - cotranposrt with Na + K 2Cl-
Resorbed or secreted with dietary intake

5

Name the diuretic that affects each segment of the nephron:
Proximal convoluted tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal convoluted tubule
Collecting duct

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Loop diuretics
Thiazide diuretics
Hormonal control (ADH)

6

T/F: High Na/Cl is sensed by the macula densa and JGA releases renin (converting angiotensinogen to angiotensin I).

F: Low concentrations of Na/Cl

7

Where is angiotensin I converted to angiotensin II? What is the enzyme?

Lung - ACE

8

What are the two organs affected by angiotensin II? What is the response?

Efferent arteriole - constriction, increase GFR
Adrenal gland (zona glomer.) - release ADH - increased absorption of Na and secretion of K at the distal tubule

9

What is the alpha-keto acid of the following AA? What enzyme makes the conversion?
Alanine
Glutamate
Aspartate

pyruvate
alphaketoglutarate
oxaloacetate

AST between apartate and oxaloacetate (with glutamate/alphaketoglutarate)
ALT between alanine and pyruvate (with glutamate/alphaketoglutarate)

10

Where does the urea cycle occur? What part of the cycle occurs in the mitochondria? In the cytosol?

Liver
Mito: NH4 + CO2 to Carbamoyl phosphatase (CP synthase)
Carbamoyl phosphatase to L-Citrulline (ornithine transcarbamoylase)

Cytosol: series of transaminations resulting in L-arginine going to urea + L-ornithine (arginase)

11

What co-factors are required in the urea cycle? By which enzyme?

Carbamoyl phosphatase synthase - 2 Mg, ATP
Arginosuccinate acid synthetase - 1 Mg, ATP, L-Aspartate

12

What is the key purpose of glutamine in nitrogen excretion in the kidney?

It has multiple Nitrogen binding sites and can carry NH3 to the kidney where it is filtered and then finds H+ in the urine to become NH4 and excreted.

13

Name the pathology:
RBC casts, 1-2wks post-sore throat
IgA response to bacteria, viruses, or foods, cause glomerular injury
Purpuric skin lesion associated with above nephropathy
Auto-Ab to basement membrane, die of lung and kidney hemorrhage

Post-streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
IgA Nephropathy/Berger's Disease
Henoch-Schonlien Purpura
Goodpasture's Syndrome

14

Name the pathology:
Severe proteinuria, severe edema, hypoalbuminemia
Infection affecting the tubules or interstitium
Dilation of renal pelvis and calyces due to obstruction

Nephropathy
Pyelonephritis
Hydronephrosis

15

What percentage or urinary stones are radiopaque?

~75%

16

What is a major sign of possible malignancy in the kidney?

Painless hematuria

17

The capillary to the loop of Henle come from the (efferent/afferent) arteriole.

Efferent