Animal Development - Chapter 47 Flashcards Preview

Biology 112 > Animal Development - Chapter 47 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Animal Development - Chapter 47 Deck (88):
1

Classical embryology

description of development in model organisms

2

induction

one type of tissue influences the development of another tissue

3

Development Stages

Fertilization

Early Cleavages

Blastula (hollow ball of cells)

Gastrulation (forms the gastrula)

Organogenesis (formation of organs)

4

Ectoderm

epidermis, nervous system

5

Mesoderm

skeleton muscles

6

Endoderm

digestive, reporductive

7

Underlying mechanisms of organogenesis

Organosgenesis are localized changes

cell migration

cell signaling between different tissues

cell shape changes genrating new organs

8

Cell movement

reorganize cytoskeleton

microtubules and microfilaments (actin)

(cells crawl using the cytoskeleton fibers to extend (extension) and retract (convergence) extensions

9

Amniotes

reptiles

birds

mammals

all have a way of developing in "watery" environments

10

4 extraembryonic membranes of amniotes

evolved as adaptation to terrestrial envroniment

Amnion

Chorion

Allantosis

Yolk Sac

11

Amnion

protects embryo in a sac

12

Chorion

lines the inner surface of the shell (which is permeable to gases) and participates in exchange of O2 and Co between embryo and outside air

13

Allantosis

stores metabolic wastes (mostly uric acid) of the embryo and as it grows larger, also participates in gas exchange

14

Yolk Sac

contains yolk - the sole source of food until hatching

15

Placental mammal development

cleavage in oviduct produces blastocyst

16

Placenta

produces progesterone beginning in the 2nd trimester (as hCG declines and corpus luteum atrophies)

(no direct connection between maternal and fetal blood vessels)

17

Human fetal development

zygote -> embryo (>2cells) -> fetus (8 weeks)

positive feedback in labor

18

3 stages of labor

  1. dilation of cervix
  2. expulsion - delivery
  3. delivery of placenta

19

Teratogenesis

environment causes a developmental abnormality

20

description of development in model organisms

Classical embryology

21

one type of tissue influences the development of another tissue

induction

22

Fertilization

Early Cleavages

Blastula (hollow ball of cells)

Gastrulation (forms the gastrula)

Organogenesis (formation of organs)

Development Stages

23

epidermis, nervous system

Ectoderm

24

skeleton muscles

Mesoderm

25

digestive, reporductive

Endoderm

26

Organosgenesis are localized changes

cell migration

cell signaling between different tissues

cell shape changes genrating new organs

Underlying mechanisms of organogenesis

27

reorganize cytoskeleton

microtubules and microfilaments (actin)

(cells crawl using the cytoskeleton fibers to extend (extension) and retract (convergence) extensions

Cell movement

28

reptiles

birds

mammals

all have a way of developing in "watery" environments

Amniotes

29

evolved as adaptation to terrestrial envroniment

Amnion

Chorion

Allantosis

Yolk Sac

4 extraembryonic membranes of amniotes

30

protects embryo in a sac

Amnion

31

lines the inner surface of the shell (which is permeable to gases) and participates in exchange of O2 and Co between embryo and outside air

Chorion

32

stores metabolic wastes (mostly uric acid) of the embryo and as it grows larger, also participates in gas exchange

Allantosis

33

contains yolk - the sole source of food until hatching

Yolk Sac

34

cleavage in oviduct produces blastocyst

Placental mammal development

35

produces progesterone beginning in the 2nd trimester (as hCG declines and corpus luteum atrophies)

(no direct connection between maternal and fetal blood vessels)

Placenta

36

zygote -> embryo (>2cells) -> fetus (8 weeks)

positive feedback in labor

Human fetal development

37

  1. dilation of cervix
  2. expulsion - delivery
  3. delivery of placenta

3 stages of labor

38

environment causes a developmental abnormality

Teratogenesis

39

Acrosomal reaction

the acrosome releases hydrolytic enzymes that make a hole in the jelly coat of the egg.  The acrosomal process forms.

This trigger changes the membrane potential of the egg because sodium ions diffuse into the egg and cause depolarization. 

40

When does the cortical reaction in sea urchins occur?

within seconds of the sperm entering the egg. 

41

Ion released from the ER and how it affects the cortical granules

Cortical Granules

calcium

it causes the cortical granules to fuse with the plasma membrane

this triggers the formation of a fertilzation membrane by lfting the vitelline layer away from the egg and hardents it into a fertilzation membrane

slow block to polyspermy

42

evidence that mRNA needed to produce enzymes involved in very early development are already in the egg before fertilization

even when the nucleus has been removed, artificial activaiton is still possible

43

Where in the egg's meiotic cycle does fertilzation occur in humans? in sea urchins?

metaphase II (12-36 hours after sperm binding)

completed meiosis (90 minutes after sperm binding)

44

Cleavage

rapid cell divisions

no substantial growth

45

Vegetal pole

yolk most concentrated at this end

46

Meroblastic cleavage (bird)

holoblastic cleavage (frog and sea urchin)

so much yolk that the cleavage furrow does not entirely pass through

cleavage furrow passes entirely through the egg

47

Unique cleavage in insects like Drosophila

sperm and egg fuse within a yolk mass and multiple rounds of mitosis occurs without cytokinesis

48

Blastula

blastocoel

hollow ball of cells

fluid-filled cavity surrounded by the blastula

49

gastrula

gastrulation

germ layered embryo forms

reorganizing the blastula into the gastrula

50

archenteron

blastopore

tube formed from shallow depresson

open end of archenteron

51

yolk plug

formed from leftovers in creating the dorsal lip of the blastopore - vegetal pole

 

52

organogenesis

formation of organs

53

how germ layers form

epiblast cells migrate towards the midline of the blastoderm, detach, and move inward

54

notochord

rod that extends along the dorsal side of the chordate embryo

55

neural tube

runs along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo, formed form the neural plate

56

somites

blocks formed froms cells migrating together.  

along the length of the notochord

57

embryonic evidence for a segmented body plan in the chordates

cells arise by division

58

specializaiton of cells duirng development

differentiation

59

Bilateral symmetry

symmetry dorsal-ventral, anterior-posterior axes, and right-left

60

how is this basic body plan established early in development in non-mammalian species?

during oogenesis (animal-vegetal poles determine symmetry) animal pole is the point of sperm entry, cortical reaction at fertilization determines dorsal-ventral axis

61

basic body plan established early in mammals?

no polarity, might have to do with orientation

62

Developmental potential

range of structures that cells can give rise to 

63

Totipotent

cell can develop into any structure of that animal

64

the acrosome releases hydrolytic enzymes that make a hole in the jelly coat of the egg.  The acrosomal process forms.

This trigger changes the membrane potential of the egg because sodium ions diffuse into the egg and cause depolarization. 

Acrosomal reaction

65

within seconds of the sperm entering the egg. 

When does the cortical reaction in sea urchins occur?

66

calcium

it causes the cortical granules to fuse with the plasma membrane

this triggers the formation of a fertilzation membrane by lfting the vitelline layer away from the egg and hardents it into a fertilzation membrane

slow block to polyspermy

Ion released from the ER and how it affects the cortical granules

Cortical Granules

67

even when the nucleus has been removed, artificial activaiton is still possible

evidence that mRNA needed to produce enzymes involved in very early development are already in the egg before fertilization

68

metaphase II (12-36 hours after sperm binding)

completed meiosis (90 minutes after sperm binding)

Where in the egg's meiotic cycle does fertilzation occur in humans? in sea urchins?

69

rapid cell divisions

no substantial growth

Cleavage

70

yolk most concentrated at this end

Vegetal pole

71

so much yolk that the cleavage furrow does not entirely pass through

cleavage furrow passes entirely through the egg

Meroblastic cleavage (bird)

holoblastic cleavage (frog and sea urchin)

72

sperm and egg fuse within a yolk mass and multiple rounds of mitosis occurs without cytokinesis

Unique cleavage in insects like Drosophila

73

hollow ball of cells

fluid-filled cavity surrounded by the blastula

Blastula

blastocoel

74

germ layered embryo forms

reorganizing the blastula into the gastrula

gastrula

gastrulation

75

tube formed from shallow depresson

open end of archenteron

archenteron

blastopore

76

formed from leftovers in creating the dorsal lip of the blastopore - vegetal pole

 

yolk plug

77

formation of organs

organogenesis

78

epiblast cells migrate towards the midline of the blastoderm, detach, and move inward

how germ layers form

79

rod that extends along the dorsal side of the chordate embryo

notochord

80

runs along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo, formed form the neural plate

neural tube

81

blocks formed froms cells migrating together.  

along the length of the notochord

somites

82

cells arise by division

embryonic evidence for a segmented body plan in the chordates

83

differentiation

specializaiton of cells duirng development

84

symmetry dorsal-ventral, anterior-posterior axes, and right-left

Bilateral symmetry

85

during oogenesis (animal-vegetal poles determine symmetry) animal pole is the point of sperm entry, cortical reaction at fertilization determines dorsal-ventral axis

how is this basic body plan established early in development in non-mammalian species?

86

no polarity, might have to do with orientation

basic body plan established early in mammals?

87

range of structures that cells can give rise to 

Developmental potential

88

cell can develop into any structure of that animal

Totipotent