Chapter 26 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (34):
1

Biological discipline concerned primarily with constructing phylogenies?

systematics

2

How are scientific names written?

italics

Genus is capitalized, specific epithet is not

ex. Panthera pardus

3

What does it mean to say that biological classificaiton is hierarchical?

It has increasingly inclusive categories

4

Taxonomic Cateogories

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

5

Taxon (plural, taxa)

the taxonomic unit at any level that is being referred to

6

What does it mean when a tree is rooted?

a tree that has a branch point that represents a common ancestor of all the taxa in the tree

7

Basal Taxon

a lineage that diverged early in the group (lies on branch that originates near common ancestor of the group)

8

Polytomy

a branch point that has more than 2 lineages

9

Cladistics

an approach to systematics where common ancestry is main criterion used to classify organism

10

Clade

grouping of an ancestral species and all its descendants

11

monophyletic clade

equivalent to taxon, includes all descendants

12

shared derived character

characteristic unique to clade

most important for defining clades

ex. in mammals, hair

13

shared ancestral character

characteristic found in common ancestor of taxon

ex. in mammals, backbone

14

Gene duplicaiton

when a gene duplicates, it provides more genes which provide more opportunities for evolutionary change

15

molecular clock

a way of measuring the time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes evolve at constant rates

wealknesses: some mutations are favored and estimates going beyond time period are highly uncertain because it's assuming the rate of change is constant

16

Principle of Parsimony

using the simplest explanation to make a phylogenetic tree

17

Horizontal gene transfer

genes are transferred from one genome to another.  allowed organisms to transfer genes to each other that would not otherwise be present.

confused interpretation of early life because some say gene transfer has been occuring for a long time, so evolutionary history should be represented as a tangled network, while others say it should be a ring. 

18

systematics

Biological discipline concerned primarily with constructing phylogenies?

19

italics

Genus is capitalized, specific epithet is not

ex. Panthera pardus

How are scientific names written?

20

It has increasingly inclusive categories

What does it mean to say that biological classificaiton is hierarchical?

21

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Taxonomic Cateogories

22

the taxonomic unit at any level that is being referred to

Taxon (plural, taxa)

23

a tree that has a branch point that represents a common ancestor of all the taxa in the tree

What does it mean when a tree is rooted?

24

a lineage that diverged early in the group (lies on branch that originates near common ancestor of the group)

Basal Taxon

25

a branch point that has more than 2 lineages

Polytomy

26

an approach to systematics where common ancestry is main criterion used to classify organism

Cladistics

27

grouping of an ancestral species and all its descendants

Clade

28

equivalent to taxon, includes all descendants

monophyletic clade

29

characteristic unique to clade

most important for defining clades

ex. in mammals, hair

shared derived character

30

characteristic found in common ancestor of taxon

ex. in mammals, backbone

shared ancestral character

31

when a gene duplicates, it provides more genes which provide more opportunities for evolutionary change

Gene duplicaiton

32

a way of measuring the time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes evolve at constant rates

wealknesses: some mutations are favored and estimates going beyond time period are highly uncertain because it's assuming the rate of change is constant

molecular clock

33

using the simplest explanation to make a phylogenetic tree

Principle of Parsimony

34

genes are transferred from one genome to another.  allowed organisms to transfer genes to each other that would not otherwise be present.

confused interpretation of early life because some say gene transfer has been occuring for a long time, so evolutionary history should be represented as a tangled network, while others say it should be a ring. 

Horizontal gene transfer