Chapter 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (30):
1

Aristotle

  • scala naturae - scale of organisms based on increasing complexity (towards perfection)
  • fixity of species

2

Carolus Linnaeus

  • classification system (still used)
  • binomial naming system (a nested sytem grouping similar species into increasingly general categories)
  • grouping based on the "pattern of their creation", not evolutionary relationships

3

Paleontology

study of fossils

developed by Cuvier who did not believe in evolution

he believed in catastrophism

4

Catastrophism

idea that events happen suddenly and differently than today

5

Hutton's "gradualism"

idea that events occur gradually and still happen today

6

Uniformitarianism

idea that events happen gradually, but at a constant rate and still happen today at a constant rate

7

Jean Baptiste Lamark (1744-1829)

Before Darwin

Wrong mostly, but got people thinking

first comprehensive theory of evolutionary change

Use and disuse, inherited acquired characterisitcs, species change over time (right), organisms strive for improvement, lineages did not branch or go extinct.  

8

biogeographical problems for Darwin

Noticed island speices were similar to mainland ones, but were still different.  Some were unique to islands.

9

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)

Darwin's competition

co-developer of natual selection

10

2 points Darwin tried to make in The Origen of Species

  1. observation - historical evolution
  2. mechanism - natural selection

11

Artificial Selection

Humans modify species over generations by breeding for specific traits.  Darwin was able to argue that this could happen in nature. 

12

What can evolve?

population

13

Evidence for Evolution (8)

  1. direct observations of evolutionary change
  2. homology (anatomical similarities)
  3. comparative embryology
  4. molecular comparisons
  5. vestigial structures
  6. convergent evolution (analogy)
  7. fossils
  8. biogeography

14

Theory of Natural Selection

A. more individuals are produced than can survive "struggle for existance"

B. Heritable variation within populations.  Non-random survival and reproduction.  Successful traits become more common. 

15

Modern Synthesis (1930's-40's)

integrated natrual selection and medalian genetics

16

  • scala naturae - scale of organisms based on increasing complexity (towards perfection)
  • fixity of species

Aristotle

17

  • classification system (still used)
  • binomial naming system (a nested sytem grouping similar species into increasingly general categories)
  • grouping based on the "pattern of their creation", not evolutionary relationships

Carolus Linnaeus

18

study of fossils

developed by Cuvier who did not believe in evolution

he believed in catastrophism

Paleontology

19

idea that events happen suddenly and differently than today

Catastrophism

20

idea that events occur gradually and still happen today

Hutton's "gradualism"

21

idea that events happen gradually, but at a constant rate and still happen today at a constant rate

Uniformitarianism

22

Before Darwin

Wrong mostly, but got people thinking

first comprehensive theory of evolutionary change

Use and disuse, inherited acquired characterisitcs, species change over time (right), organisms strive for improvement, lineages did not branch or go extinct.  

Jean Baptiste Lamark (1744-1829)

23

Noticed island speices were similar to mainland ones, but were still different.  Some were unique to islands.

biogeographical problems for Darwin

24

Darwin's competition

co-developer of natual selection

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)

25

  1. observation - historical evolution
  2. mechanism - natural selection

2 points Darwin tried to make in The Origen of Species

26

Humans modify species over generations by breeding for specific traits.  Darwin was able to argue that this could happen in nature. 

Artificial Selection

27

population

What can evolve?

28

  1. direct observations of evolutionary change
  2. homology (anatomical similarities)
  3. comparative embryology
  4. molecular comparisons
  5. vestigial structures
  6. convergent evolution (analogy)
  7. fossils
  8. biogeography

Evidence for Evolution (8)

29

A. more individuals are produced than can survive "struggle for existance"

B. Heritable variation within populations.  Non-random survival and reproduction.  Successful traits become more common. 

Theory of Natural Selection

30

integrated natrual selection and medalian genetics

Modern Synthesis (1930's-40's)