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Flashcards in Chapter 46 Deck (106):
1

Types of asexual reproduction

fission, budding, parthenogesis

2

Parthenogenesis

(lizards)

egss develop w/o fertilization

happens when environmental conditions are good (sexual reproduciton happens if they're not)

3

Asexual Reproduction

Positives

  • no partner needed
  • no "sharing offspring (more own genes in next gen)
  • easier to colonize new location
  • if enironment constant and favorable, genetically-identical offspring well-suited to environment
  • produce many offspring quicly

4

Asexual Reproduction

Negatives

  • if environment is variable in space or time, lack of variation in offspring is disadvantageous
  • an "evolutionary dead-end" if there is no way to introduce genetic variation

5

Origins of Sexual Reproduction

no one really knows why it evolved

likely evolved in the pre-cambrian era

6

Sexual Reproduction 

Positives

  • offspring genetically diverse

7

Sexual Reproduction

Negatives

  • variation not advantageous if environment is good and constant
  • need partner
  • "share" offspring (only 50% of genes)
  • Harder to colonize new location

8

Hermaphrodites

both male and female

earthworms

9

SRY Gene

codes for a transcription factor that up-regulates regulatory genes controlling formation of testes and production of testosterone

(determines if male)

10

Gameotogenesis

formation of gametes

gametes are produced by meiosis (produces haploid cells)

11

FSH and LH

Hormone

Target

Testes or Ovaries

12

TSH

Thyroid

13

ACTH

Adrenal Cortex

14

Prolactin

Mammary glands

15

MSH

melanocytes

16

GH

Liver, bones, and other tissues

17

Hypothalamus (sequence)

Neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus -> portal vessels -> hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones -> endocrine cells of anterior posterior -> pituitary hormones -> different hormones

18

Steroid Hormones (lipids)

Estradiol, Testosterone

19

Endocrine disruptors

Hormonally active molecules in the environment

20

Antagonists

block the function of a hormone

21

DDE

from the metabolic breakdown of the pesticide DDT

binds to and blocks androgen receptors

 

22

Vinclozolin

  • fungicide used on grapes in vineyards
  • androgen antagonist
  • reduces sperm production
  • produces malformed genitalia
  • transgenrational effect

23

Blocking of transcpription

methylation of DNA

24

Epigenetic inheritance

change in the control of gene expression is passes to next generation

25

Oogenesis

formation of eggs

26

DES (diesthylstilbestrol)

mimics estradiol

prescribed to maintain at-risk pregnancies

caused genital abnormalities and cancer in women exposed in utero

is an obesigen

represses Hoxa10 gene

27

Atrazine

  • increase in hormone synthesis
  • herbicide increases estrogen synthesis
  • converts testosterone to estrogen = chemical
  • one of the most widely used agricultural pesticides in U.S. to control broadleaf and weeds
  • used primarily on corn, sorghum, and sugarcane, midwest most
  • used to a lesser extent on residential lawns mostly FL, and SE

28

BPA

  • makes individual more sensitive to natural hormones
  • induces the production of receptors for estrogen
  • affects methylation patterns
  • Bispheonl A
  • everywhere

29

fission, budding, parthenogesis

Types of asexual reproduction

30

(lizards)

egss develop w/o fertilization

happens when environmental conditions are good (sexual reproduciton happens if they're not)

Parthenogenesis

31

  • no partner needed
  • no "sharing offspring (more own genes in next gen)
  • easier to colonize new location
  • if enironment constant and favorable, genetically-identical offspring well-suited to environment
  • produce many offspring quicly

Asexual Reproduction

Positives

32

  • if environment is variable in space or time, lack of variation in offspring is disadvantageous
  • an "evolutionary dead-end" if there is no way to introduce genetic variation

Asexual Reproduction

Negatives

33

no one really knows why it evolved

likely evolved in the pre-cambrian era

Origins of Sexual Reproduction

34

  • offspring genetically diverse

Sexual Reproduction 

Positives

35

  • variation not advantageous if environment is good and constant
  • need partner
  • "share" offspring (only 50% of genes)
  • Harder to colonize new location

Sexual Reproduction

Negatives

36

both male and female

earthworms

Hermaphrodites

37

codes for a transcription factor that up-regulates regulatory genes controlling formation of testes and production of testosterone

(determines if male)

SRY Gene

38

formation of gametes

gametes are produced by meiosis (produces haploid cells)

Gameotogenesis

39

Target

Testes or Ovaries

FSH and LH

Hormone

40

Thyroid

TSH

41

Adrenal Cortex

ACTH

42

Mammary glands

Prolactin

43

melanocytes

MSH

44

Liver, bones, and other tissues

GH

45

Neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus -> portal vessels -> hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones -> endocrine cells of anterior posterior -> pituitary hormones -> different hormones

Hypothalamus (sequence)

46

Estradiol, Testosterone

Steroid Hormones (lipids)

47

Hormonally active molecules in the environment

Endocrine disruptors

48

block the function of a hormone

Antagonists

49

from the metabolic breakdown of the pesticide DDT

binds to and blocks androgen receptors

 

DDE

50

  • fungicide used on grapes in vineyards
  • androgen antagonist
  • reduces sperm production
  • produces malformed genitalia
  • transgenrational effect

Vinclozolin

51

methylation of DNA

Blocking of transcpription

52

change in the control of gene expression is passes to next generation

Epigenetic inheritance

53

formation of eggs

Oogenesis

54

mimics estradiol

prescribed to maintain at-risk pregnancies

caused genital abnormalities and cancer in women exposed in utero

is an obesigen

represses Hoxa10 gene

DES (diesthylstilbestrol)

55

  • increase in hormone synthesis
  • herbicide increases estrogen synthesis
  • converts testosterone to estrogen = chemical
  • one of the most widely used agricultural pesticides in U.S. to control broadleaf and weeds
  • used primarily on corn, sorghum, and sugarcane, midwest most
  • used to a lesser extent on residential lawns mostly FL, and SE

Atrazine

56

  • makes individual more sensitive to natural hormones
  • induces the production of receptors for estrogen
  • affects methylation patterns
  • Bispheonl A
  • everywhere

BPA

57

Gonad

produce gametes

most sexually reproducing species have them, but not all

58

Spermatheca

hold sperm 

59

Follicle

What

When

Connection to corpus luteum

contain an oocyte (partially developed egg)

found on outside of ovaries

formed in the embryo

the follicular tissue left after ovulation grows and produces the corpus luteum

60

Endometrium

lining of the uterus

rich supply of blood vessels

where the developing embryo implants wtihin several days

61

Time for sperm to pass through epididymis

Affect maturation?

3 weeks.

complete maturation and become motile

62

In addition to sperm, what organs contribute fluids to the semen?

What is the function of their secretions?

mucus

fructose (energy for sperm)

coagulating enzyme (to keep sperm together at first)

citrate (nutrition)

anticoagulant enzyme (so they can swim separately)

ascorbic acid

local regulators (prostaglandin)

63

Spermatogenesis vs Oogenesis

  • Spermatogenesis:
  • all 4 products of meiosis become mature gametes
  • occurs througout adolescence and adulthood
  • produces mature sperm from precursor cells in a continuous sequence
  • Oogenesis:
  • Cytokinesis in meiosis is unequal, almost all cytoplasm given to a single daughter cell (becomes egg)(smaller cells, polar bodies, degenerate)
  • Mitotic divisions complete at birth, production of mature gametes stops at 50.
  • long interruptions

64

In sperm cell, function of acrosome and mitochondria

contains enzymes that help penetrate egg

provides ATP for movement of the tail

65

Most important androgen

where produced

effects

66

most common female hormons

when produced

where produced

LH, FSH, and estradiol produced just before ovulation

progesterone produced during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle and during the secretory phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle

produced in the anterior posterior

67

How female hormones exert effect 

through the blood

68

role of negative&positive feedback in oogenesis and ovulation

tells body when to stop and start production of GnRH.  Also prevents another egg from being released

69

Estradiol reach peak in menstrual cycle

just before ovulation

70

Progesterone reach peak

in the luteal phase just after ovulation

71

Effect of progesterone and estrogen on uterus?

develop and maintain the uterine lining

72

What causes the menstrual flow?

the endometrium shedding due to nutrients being cut off, since there wasn't fertilization hormone prodcution was stopped. 

73

Estrous Cycles

uterus reabsorbs endometrium (no period)

only mate during periods surrounding ovulation (heat)

74

Role of hypothalamus and anterior pituitary in production of androgens

located in the brain

the hypothalamus secretes GnRH -> anterior posterior secretes FSH and LH 

FSH -> production of sertoli cells 

LH -> prodcution of leydig cells

Sertoli cells -> inhibin and spermatogenesis

Leydig Cells -> testosterone -> spermatogenesis

testosterone is produced in the testes

75

Clitoris and Penis

formed from the same embryonic tissues

both enlarge and fill with blood during excitement

76

Fertilization normally occurs

in the oviduct

77

hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

horomone produced by the fetus that prevents its spontaneous abortion 

78

Placenta

the trophoblast (outer layer of blastocyst) grows outward and interacts with the endometrium

made up of both maternal and fetal tissue

disc-shaped

function: nutrients, immune-protection, exchange respiratory gases, disposes of metabolic wastes

79

Trimester organs formed

first

80

Two types of permanent surgical contraception

tubal ligation

vasectamy

81

In vitro fertilization

mixing sperm and oocytes in dishes and then waiting til at least 8 cells form and injecting them back into the woman for implantation

82

produce gametes

most sexually reproducing species have them, but not all

Gonad

83

hold sperm 

Spermatheca

84

contain an oocyte (partially developed egg)

found on outside of ovaries

formed in the embryo

the follicular tissue left after ovulation grows and produces the corpus luteum

Follicle

What

When

Connection to corpus luteum

85

lining of the uterus

rich supply of blood vessels

where the developing embryo implants wtihin several days

Endometrium

86

3 weeks.

complete maturation and become motile

Time for sperm to pass through epididymis

Affect maturation?

87

mucus

fructose (energy for sperm)

coagulating enzyme (to keep sperm together at first)

citrate (nutrition)

anticoagulant enzyme (so they can swim separately)

ascorbic acid

local regulators (prostaglandin)

In addition to sperm, what organs contribute fluids to the semen?

What is the function of their secretions?

88

  • Spermatogenesis:
  • all 4 products of meiosis become mature gametes
  • occurs througout adolescence and adulthood
  • produces mature sperm from precursor cells in a continuous sequence
  • Oogenesis:
  • Cytokinesis in meiosis is unequal, almost all cytoplasm given to a single daughter cell (becomes egg)(smaller cells, polar bodies, degenerate)
  • Mitotic divisions complete at birth, production of mature gametes stops at 50.
  • long interruptions

Spermatogenesis vs Oogenesis

89

contains enzymes that help penetrate egg

provides ATP for movement of the tail

In sperm cell, function of acrosome and mitochondria

90

Most important androgen

where produced

effects

91

LH, FSH, and estradiol produced just before ovulation

progesterone produced during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle and during the secretory phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle

produced in the anterior posterior

most common female hormons

when produced

where produced

92

through the blood

How female hormones exert effect 

93

tells body when to stop and start production of GnRH.  Also prevents another egg from being released

role of negative&positive feedback in oogenesis and ovulation

94

just before ovulation

Estradiol reach peak in menstrual cycle

95

in the luteal phase just after ovulation

Progesterone reach peak

96

develop and maintain the uterine lining

Effect of progesterone and estrogen on uterus?

97

the endometrium shedding due to nutrients being cut off, since there wasn't fertilization hormone prodcution was stopped. 

What causes the menstrual flow?

98

uterus reabsorbs endometrium (no period)

only mate during periods surrounding ovulation (heat)

Estrous Cycles

99

located in the brain

the hypothalamus secretes GnRH -> anterior posterior secretes FSH and LH 

FSH -> production of sertoli cells 

LH -> prodcution of leydig cells

Sertoli cells -> inhibin and spermatogenesis

Leydig Cells -> testosterone -> spermatogenesis

testosterone is produced in the testes

Role of hypothalamus and anterior pituitary in production of androgens

100

formed from the same embryonic tissues

both enlarge and fill with blood during excitement

Clitoris and Penis

101

in the oviduct

Fertilization normally occurs

102

horomone produced by the fetus that prevents its spontaneous abortion 

hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

103

the trophoblast (outer layer of blastocyst) grows outward and interacts with the endometrium

made up of both maternal and fetal tissue

disc-shaped

function: nutrients, immune-protection, exchange respiratory gases, disposes of metabolic wastes

Placenta

104

first

Trimester organs formed

105

tubal ligation

vasectamy

Two types of permanent surgical contraception

106

mixing sperm and oocytes in dishes and then waiting til at least 8 cells form and injecting them back into the woman for implantation

In vitro fertilization