Ch. 34 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 34 Deck (42):
1

Defining characteristic of mammals (get name from)

mammary glands 

(produce milk for offspring)

2

derived characters of mammals

mammals have:

mammary glands

hair

high metabolic rate (due to endothermy)

larger brain than other vertebrates of equal size

differentiated teeth (wide variety)

3

Synapsids

mammal-like reptiles

what mammals evolved from

two bones that formerly made up the jaw joint were incorporated into the mammalian middle ear

4

3 living lineages of mammals that emerged by the early cretaceous

monotremes

marsupials 

eutherians

5

monotremes

lay eggs

spiny echidna, duck-billed platypus (only in Australia and New Guinea)

6

Marsupials

include opposums, kangaroos, and koalas

embryo develops within a placenta in the mother's uterus

born very early in development

completes its embryonic development while nursing in maternal pouch called a marsupium

 

7

Eutherians

placental mammals - young nourished through placenta

in Australia, converegent evolution has resulted in a diversity of marsupials that resemble the eutherians in other parts of the world

8

3 main groups of living primates

lemurs, lorises, pottos

tarsiers

anthropoids (monkeys and apes)

9

derived characters of primates

most have hands and feet adapted for grasping

flat nails

large brain

forward-looking eyes close together on face (for depth perception)

complex xocial behavior and parental care

a fully opposable thumb (monkeys and apes)

10

Old World Monkeys

colonized in Africa

11

New World Monkeys

colonized in South America

12

Lucy

Australopithecus afarensis

3.24 million years ago (rock layers this old)

oldest, most complete fossil that helped show these species were bipedal

13

extant

not extinct

14

hominins

fossils of extinct species that are more closely related to humans than chimps

15

australopiths

hominins that existed during the time period when hominin diversity drastically increased (4-2mya)

16

Which developed first, bipedal or large brain?

Bipedal before large brain

17

What does greater or lesser sexual dimorphism suggest about the social behavior of a species?

Greater dimorphism equates to more male-male competition.  Less dimorphism (more similar sizes between male and female) equeates to more pair-bonding.  They could pair-bonding because their young require greater parental care from both parents

18

Homo sapiens

originated in Africa

160,000 year-old skull (195,000 earliest known fossil)

began migration out of Africa about 50,000 (100k?) years ago and went to Asia then Europe and Australia

hominid evolution is like a bush, not linear

species often coexisted

mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) suggests we all share a common female ancestor (about 200,000years ago)

19

Homo habilis

650 cc brain

simple stone tools

20

H. ergaster/H.erectus (taxomic status still debated)

brain gradually increases (reaches 1200cc)

more sophisticated tools

originated in Africa and migrated to Indonesia

21

H. neanderthalensis

evolved in Eurasia from H. erectus (about 200,000 years ago)

disappeared about 30,000years ago

humans didn't derive from Neanderthals

 

22

mammary glands 

(produce milk for offspring)

Defining characteristic of mammals (get name from)

23

mammals have:

mammary glands

hair

high metabolic rate (due to endothermy)

larger brain than other vertebrates of equal size

differentiated teeth (wide variety)

derived characters of mammals

24

mammal-like reptiles

what mammals evolved from

two bones that formerly made up the jaw joint were incorporated into the mammalian middle ear

Synapsids

25

monotremes

marsupials 

eutherians

3 living lineages of mammals that emerged by the early cretaceous

26

lay eggs

spiny echidna, duck-billed platypus (only in Australia and New Guinea)

monotremes

27

include opposums, kangaroos, and koalas

embryo develops within a placenta in the mother's uterus

born very early in development

completes its embryonic development while nursing in maternal pouch called a marsupium

 

Marsupials

28

placental mammals - young nourished through placenta

in Australia, converegent evolution has resulted in a diversity of marsupials that resemble the eutherians in other parts of the world

Eutherians

29

lemurs, lorises, pottos

tarsiers

anthropoids (monkeys and apes)

3 main groups of living primates

30

most have hands and feet adapted for grasping

flat nails

large brain

forward-looking eyes close together on face (for depth perception)

complex xocial behavior and parental care

a fully opposable thumb (monkeys and apes)

derived characters of primates

31

colonized in Africa

Old World Monkeys

32

colonized in South America

New World Monkeys

33

Australopithecus afarensis

3.24 million years ago (rock layers this old)

oldest, most complete fossil that helped show these species were bipedal

Lucy

34

not extinct

extant

35

fossils of extinct species that are more closely related to humans than chimps

hominins

36

hominins that existed during the time period when hominin diversity drastically increased (4-2mya)

australopiths

37

Bipedal before large brain

Which developed first, bipedal or large brain?

38

Greater dimorphism equates to more male-male competition.  Less dimorphism (more similar sizes between male and female) equeates to more pair-bonding.  They could pair-bonding because their young require greater parental care from both parents

What does greater or lesser sexual dimorphism suggest about the social behavior of a species?

39

originated in Africa

160,000 year-old skull (195,000 earliest known fossil)

began migration out of Africa about 50,000 (100k?) years ago and went to Asia then Europe and Australia

hominid evolution is like a bush, not linear

species often coexisted

mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) suggests we all share a common female ancestor (about 200,000years ago)

Homo sapiens

40

650 cc brain

simple stone tools

Homo habilis

41

brain gradually increases (reaches 1200cc)

more sophisticated tools

originated in Africa and migrated to Indonesia

H. ergaster/H.erectus (taxomic status still debated)

42

evolved in Eurasia from H. erectus (about 200,000 years ago)

disappeared about 30,000years ago

humans didn't derive from Neanderthals

 

H. neanderthalensis