Chapter 52 - Ecology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 52 - Ecology Deck (112):
1

Ecology

oikos - home 

logos - study

the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment

2

Global Ecology

the biosphere is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems

examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere

3

Landscape ecology

a landscape or seascape is a mosaic of connected ecosystems

landscape ecology focuses on the factors controlling exhanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems

4

Ecosystem Ecology

an ecosystem is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which those organisms interact

emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the enviroment

5

Community Ecology

a community is a group of populations of different species in an area

community ecology examines how interactions between species, such as predation and competition, affect community strucutre and organization 

6

Population Ecology

a population is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area

analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it changes through time

7

Organismal Ecology

studies how an organism's structure, physiology, and (for animals) behavior meet environmental challenges

includes physiological, evolutionary, and behavioral ecology

8

Influences on Ecology:

Climate

long-term, prevailing weather conditions in an area

9

4 major abiotic components of climate

temperature, prescipitation, sunlight, wind

10

Macroclimate

consits of patterns on the globabl, regional, and landscape level

11

Microclimate

consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log

12

Large impact on global climate patterns

solar energy and planet's movement in space

13

Warming effect of the sun

causes temperature variations, which drive evaporation and the circulation of air and water

this causes latitudinal variations in climate

14

These patterns play major roles in determining climate patterns

global air circulation and precipitation

15

rising air masses

release moisture (cause high precipitation)

16

descending air masses

absorb moisture (create arid climates, especially near 30 degrees N and S)

17

Creates predictable global wind pattern

Air flowing close to the Earth's surface

 

18

Wind Patterns

Cooling trade winds blow from E to W in the tropics

prevailing westerlies blow from W to E in temperate zones

19

Causes seasonality at high latitudes

tlit of the Earth's axis of rotation and its annual passage around the sun

20

moderate climates of nearby terrestrial environments

oceans, their currents, and large lakes

21

Current of Gulf Stream

the Gulf Stream carries warm water from the equator to the North Atlantic

22

Water Currents

North of the equator - water currents clockwise

South of the equator - water currents counterclockwise

23

Ocean Cooling/Warming the Land

During the day, air rises over the warm land and draws a cool breeze from the water across the land

As the land cools at night, air rises over the warmer water and draws cooler air from the land back over the water, which is replaced by warm air from offshore

24

Air over a mountain

Rising air reduces moisture on the windward side of a peak and creates a "rain shadow" as it absorbs moisture on the leeward side

25

the distribution of organisms and their abundance

Ecology

26

the biosphere is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems

examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere

Global Ecology

27

a landscape or seascape is a mosaic of connected ecosystems

landscape ecology focuses on the factors controlling exhanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems

Landscape ecology

28

an ecosystem is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which those organisms interact

emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the enviroment

Ecosystem Ecology

29

a community is a group of populations of different species in an area

community ecology examines how interactions between species, such as predation and competition, affect community strucutre and organization 

Community Ecology

30

a population is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area

analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it changes through time

Population Ecology

31

studies how an organism's structure, physiology, and (for animals) behavior meet environmental challenges

includes physiological, evolutionary, and behavioral ecology

Organismal Ecology

32

long-term, prevailing weather conditions in an area

Influences on Ecology:

Climate

33

temperature, prescipitation, sunlight, wind

4 major abiotic components

34

consits of patterns on the globabl, regional, and landscape level

Macroclimate

35

consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log

Microclimate

36

solar energy and planet's movement in space

Large impact on global climate patterns

37

causes temperature variations, which drive evaporation and the circulation of air and water

this causes latitudinal variations in climate

Warming effect of the sun

38

global air circulation and precipitation

These patterns play major roles in determining climate patterns

39

release moisture (cause high precipitation)

rising air masses

40

absorb moisture (create arid climates, especially near 30 degrees N and S)

descending air masses

41

Air flowing close to the Earth's surface

 

Creates predictable global wind pattern

42

Cooling trade winds blow from E to W in the tropics

prevailing westerlies blow from W to E in temperate zones

Wind Patterns

43

tlit of the Earth's axis of rotation and its annual passage around the sun

Causes seasonality at high latitudes

44

oceans, their currents, and large lakes

moderate climates of nearby terrestrial environments

45

the Gulf Stream carries warm water from the equator to the North Atlantic

Current of Gulf Stream

46

North of the equator - water currents clockwise

South of the equator - water currents counterclockwise

Water Currents

47

During the day, air rises over the warm land and draws a cool breeze from the water across the land

As the land cools at night, air rises over the warmer water and draws cooler air from the land back over the water, which is replaced by warm air from offshore

Ocean Cooling/Warming the Land

48

Rising air reduces moisture on the windward side of a peak and creates a "rain shadow" as it absorbs moisture on the leeward side

Air over a mountain

49

Why might species have smaller ranges or become extinct as the climate changes?

human barriers (cities)

other abiotic factors not supportive for that species (too rainy/snowy/windy)

50

What is very important in determining why terrestrial biomes are found in certain areas?

climate

51

Biomes

major life zones characterized by vegetation type (terrestrial biomes) or physical environment (aquatic biomes)

are dynamic and usually exhibit extensive patchiness

52

climograph

temperature vs. precipitation (annual averages)

53

Terrestrial Biomes

often named for major physical or climatic factors and for vegetation

 

54

Tropical Rain Forest

equatorial

warm year round

wet

competition for sunlight

55

Temperate Broadleaf Forest

significant precipitation year round

all 4 seasons

56

Grasslands

precipiation is highly seasonal

winters cold and dry

summers hot and wet

57

Deserts

occur in bands near 30 degrees north and south of the equator

precipitation is low and highly variable

58

Northern Coniferous Forest

largest terrestrial biome on earth

precipitation varies

winters are cold

59

Tundra

precipitation low

winters are cold

60

Aquatic Biomes

most organisms occur in the relatively shallow photic zone

the aphotic zone in oceans is extensive, but harbors ittle life

determinants: light and substrates

zones defined by light penetration, temperature, and depth

61

detritus

dead, organic matter

falls from the productive surface water and is an important source of food

62

most lakes

in summer - the warmer upper layer from the cold deeper water

many lakes undergo a semiannual mixing of their waters called turnover

turnover mixes oxygenated water from the surface with nutrient-rich water from the bottom

63

communities in aquatic biomes

vary with depth, light penetration, distance from shore, and position in the pelagic or benthic zone

64

oligotrophic lakes

nutrient-poor and generally oxygen-rich

(lakes around here, clean, smell fine)

65

Eutrophic lakes

nutrient-rich and often depleted of oxygen if ice covered in winter

(smell bad, southern)

66

littoral zone

rooted and floating aquatic plants

well-lit

shallow

close to shore

67

limnetic zone

water too deep to support rooted aquatic plants

small drifiting animals called zooplankton graze on the phytoplankton

68

human barriers (cities)

other abiotic factors not supportive for that species (too rainy/snowy/windy)

Why might species have smaller ranges or become extinct as the climate changes?

69

climate

What is very important in determining why terrestrial biomes are found in certain areas?

70

major life zones characterized by vegetation type (terrestrial biomes) or physical environment (aquatic biomes)

are dynamic and usually exhibit extensive patchiness

Biomes

71

temperature vs. precipitation (annual averages)

climograph

72

often named for major physical or climatic factors and for vegetation

 

Terrestrial Biomes

73

equatorial

warm year round

wet

competition for sunlight

Tropical Rain Forest

74

significant precipitation year round

all 4 seasons

Temperate Broadleaf Forest

75

precipiation is highly seasonal

winters cold and dry

summers hot and wet

Grasslands

76

occur in bands near 30 degrees north and south of the equator

precipitation is low and highly variable

Deserts

77

largest terrestrial biome on earth

precipitation varies

winters are cold

Northern Coniferous Forest

78

precipitation low

winters are cold

Tundra

79

most organisms occur in the relatively shallow photic zone

the aphotic zone in oceans is extensive, but harbors ittle life

determinants: light and substrates

zones defined by light penetration, temperature, and depth

Aquatic Biomes

80

dead, organic matter

falls from the productive surface water and is an important source of food

detritus

81

in summer - the warmer upper layer from the cold deeper water

many lakes undergo a semiannual mixing of their waters called turnover

turnover mixes oxygenated water from the surface with nutrient-rich water from the bottom

most lakes

82

vary with depth, light penetration, distance from shore, and position in the pelagic or benthic zone

communities in aquatic biomes

83

nutrient-poor and generally oxygen-rich

(lakes around here, clean, smell fine)

oligotrophic lakes

84

nutrient-rich and often depleted of oxygen if ice covered in winter

(smell bad, southern)

Eutrophic lakes

85

rooted and floating aquatic plants

well-lit

shallow

close to shore

littoral zone

86

water too deep to support rooted aquatic plants

small drifiting animals called zooplankton graze on the phytoplankton

limnetic zone

87

Wetlands

high organic production

among most productive biomes on earth

diverse life

humans have destoryed up to 90% of wetlands

wetlands purify water and reduce flooding

88

stream

headwaters are generally cold, clear, swift, and oxygen-rich

often narrow and rocky

89

rivers

downstream rivers are warmer, wide, meandering, and silty

 

90

estruary

transition area between river and sea

salinity varies with rise and fall of tide 

nutrient-rich and highly producitve

network of tidal channels, mudflats

saltmarsh grasses and algae are major producers

91

intertidal zone

periodically submerged and exposed by the tides (2x a day)

organisms have variations in temperature, salinity, wave action

oxygen and nutrient levels high

can be rocky: see structural adaptations for attaching

or sandy: sea grass, worms, clams

92

ocean

covers about 70% of Earth's surface

in temperate oceans, turnover renews nutrients in the photic zones

tropical oceans have year-round stratification - leads to lower nutrient concentrations

phytoplankton and zooplankton - dominant organisms

93

coral reef

formed from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals (cnidarians)

photic zone - warm, clear water

very deep benthic zone organisms are adapted to continuous cold, extremely high water pressure, and darkness

substrate is mainly soft sediments

94

deep-sea hydrothermal vents

of folcanic origin on mid-oceanic ridges

have unique chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, tube worms, and crabs

95

distribution of species

result of ecological and evolutionary interactions through time

96

ecological time

is the minute-to-minute time frame of interactions between organisms and the environment

97

evolutionary time

spans many generations and captures adaptation through natural selection

98

climate limits indirerectly through biotic factors:

pathogens, prasites, predators, competitors, food availability

99

Successful transplant

indicates that its potential ranges is greater than its actual range

100

high organic production

among most productive biomes on earth

diverse life

humans have destoryed up to 90% of wetlands

wetlands purify water and reduce flooding

Wetlands

101

headwaters are generally cold, clear, swift, and oxygen-rich

often narrow and rocky

stream

102

downstream rivers are warmer, wide, meandering, and silty

 

rivers

103

transition area between river and sea

salinity varies with rise and fall of tide 

nutrient-rich and highly producitve

network of tidal channels, mudflats

saltmarsh grasses and algae are major producers

estruary

104

periodically submerged and exposed by the tides (2x a day)

organisms have variations in temperature, salinity, wave action

oxygen and nutrient levels high

can be rocky: see structural adaptations for attaching

or sandy: sea grass, worms, clams

intertidal zone

105

covers about 70% of Earth's surface

in temperate oceans, turnover renews nutrients in the photic zones

tropical oceans have year-round stratification - leads to lower nutrient concentrations

phytoplankton and zooplankton - dominant organisms

ocean

106

formed from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals (cnidarians)

photic zone - warm, clear water

very deep benthic zone organisms are adapted to continuous cold, extremely high water pressure, and darkness

substrate is mainly soft sediments

coral reef

107

of folcanic origin on mid-oceanic ridges

have unique chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, tube worms, and crabs

deep-sea hydrothermal vents

108

result of ecological and evolutionary interactions through time

distribution of species

109

is the minute-to-minute time frame of interactions between organisms and the environment

ecological time

110

spans many generations and captures adaptation through natural selection

evolutionary time

111

pathogens, prasites, predators, competitors, food availability

climate limits indirerectly through biotic factors:

112

indicates that its potential ranges is greater than its actual range

Successful transplant