Chapter 38 and friends Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 38 and friends Deck (50):
1

relationship between was Campsoscolia and orchid

parasitic

2

angiosperms

flowering plants

3

in plants, type of cell dividsion that produces gametes

mitosis

in animals, gametes are produced by meiosis

4

alteration of generations

multicellular haploid and diploid generations take turns producing each other

sporophyte (2N) -> (meiosis) spores (N) -> (growth and mitosis) gametophyte (N) -> (Mitosis) Gametes ->Fertilization and growth -> sporophyte (2N)

5

anther

end of the stamen

has sacs within it that produce pollen

6

4 components of a complete flower

structure and function

sepals - reprodcutive (male), enclose and protect unopened floral buds, more leafy in appearance

petals - sterile, most brightly colored (advertise)

stamens - sterile

carpels - reproductive (female, has ovary (ovules), stulye,stigma (capture pollen) - pistil (collective term)

all attached to receptacle

7

male gametophyte

origin and structure

pollen grain - consists of 2 haploid cells

generative cell

tube cell - pollen tube, delivers sperm to female gametophyte

and spore wall 

pollen grain develops within the microsporangia (pollen sacs) of anthers at the tips of the stamens

microsporocyte (2N) -> (meiosis) 4 microspores (n) -> (Mitosis) 4 pollen grains (N)

male gametophyte develops inside anther

8

female gametophyte 

origin and structure

embryo sac

ovule becomes seed

develops in ovule (megasporangium)

megasporocyte (2N) -> (meiosis) 1 megaspore (really 4, but only 1 survives) -> (mitosis) embryo sac 

9

Pollination

transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma

wind, water, animals

occurs when pollen grain lands on stigma and germinates.  

10

fate of each of the two sperm within a mature male gametophyte and how the sperm reach the ovule

one sperm fertilizes the egg, forming the zygote

the other sperm combines with the 2 polar nuclei of the embryo sac's large central cell, forming a triploid cell that develops into the nutritive tissue called endosperm

the sperm reach the ovule by traveling down the pollen tube that forms when the pollen is germinated

11

mature ovule

seed

12

how does the endosperm end up with 3 sets of chromosomes and function

a sperm combines with 2 polar nuclei

food-stroing tissue of seed

13

how do cotyledons develop and function

as bumps on the proembryo

absorb and store food from the endosperm

14

part of flower develops into fruit

and function

the ovary

seed dsipersal, a part of it is edible and it entices an animal

15

function of seed dormancy.  first step in the germination of the seed

it increases advantageous conditions for the seed to germinate 

imbibition - uptake of water due to the low water potential of the dry seed

16

two regions of undifferentiated tissue in plant

meristematic tissue (=to animal stem cells) (found in the Apical Meristem (tissue at top of plant covered by leaves) and lateral mersitem)

horizontal stems (stolons (runners) on top, rhizomes, underground) -this can produce large clones

asexual (vegetative) reproduction

17

fragmentation

type of asexual reproduction

plant breaking apart at specific places

18

Examples of alteration of generations (moss, ferns, angiosperms)

moss - gametophyte is most conspicuous stage (what you see)

ferns and angiosperms - sporophyte (2n) is more conspicuous, gametophyte is at base, gametophyte stage is very reduced

19

monoecious

diocecious

parts of plant can be male or female

entire plant is male or female

20

Fertilization in angiosperms

1. generative cell (haploid) within pollen grain divides by mitosis (2 sperm)

2. pollen tube grows, carrying 2 sperm

3. double feritilization

if the egg is fertilized, the ovule develops into seed and ovary into fruit.

21

seed development

some or all the resources of the endosperm are diverted to cotyledons (monocots , corn, dicots - bean - both types of angiosperms)

22

3 process of plant development

1. growth

2. differentiation

3. morphogenesis

23

two components of plant growth

1. cell division

2. cell expansion (ezymatic cleavage allows cellulose fibers to spread and expand)

both canges tend to be in one direction

most size increase due to cell expansion

24

cellular differentiation

 

determined by position rather than lineage

correlated with chemical gradients

25

aukin

inhibits axillary buds (cut off top, no inhibiton of axillary buds)

26

parasitic

relationship between was Campsoscolia and orchid

27

flowering plants

angiosperms

28

mitosis

in animals, gametes are produced by meiosis

in plants, type of cell dividsion that produces gametes

29

multicellular haploid and diploid generations take turns producing each other

sporophyte (2N) -> (meiosis) spores (N) -> (growth and mitosis) gametophyte (N) -> (Mitosis) Gametes ->Fertilization and growth -> sporophyte (2N)

alteration of generations

30

end of the stamen

has sacs within it that produce pollen

anther

31

sepals - reprodcutive (male), enclose and protect unopened floral buds, more leafy in appearance

petals - sterile, most brightly colored (advertise)

stamens - sterile

carpels - reproductive (female, has ovary (ovules), stulye,stigma (capture pollen) - pistil (collective term)

all attached to receptacle

4 components of a complete flower

structure and function

32

pollen grain - consists of 2 haploid cells

generative cell

tube cell - pollen tube, delivers sperm to female gametophyte

and spore wall 

pollen grain develops within the microsporangia (pollen sacs) of anthers at the tips of the stamens

microsporocyte (2N) -> (meiosis) 4 microspores (n) -> (Mitosis) 4 pollen grains (N)

male gametophyte develops inside anther

male gametophyte

origin and structure

33

embryo sac

ovule becomes seed

develops in ovule (megasporangium)

megasporocyte (2N) -> (meiosis) 1 megaspore (really 4, but only 1 survives) -> (mitosis) embryo sac 

female gametophyte 

origin and structure

34

transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma

wind, water, animals

occurs when pollen grain lands on stigma and germinates.  

Pollination

35

one sperm fertilizes the egg, forming the zygote

the other sperm combines with the 2 polar nuclei of the embryo sac's large central cell, forming a triploid cell that develops into the nutritive tissue called endosperm

the sperm reach the ovule by traveling down the pollen tube that forms when the pollen is germinated

fate of each of the two sperm within a mature male gametophyte and how the sperm reach the ovule

36

seed

mature ovule

37

a sperm combines with 2 polar nuclei

food-stroing tissue of seed

how does the endosperm end up with 3 sets of chromosomes and function

38

as bumps on the proembryo

absorb and store food from the endosperm

how do cotyledons develop and function

39

the ovary

seed dsipersal, a part of it is edible and it entices an animal

part of flower develops into fruit

and function

40

it increases advantageous conditions for the seed to germinate 

imbibition - uptake of water due to the low water potential of the dry seed

function of seed dormancy.  first step in the germination of the seed

41

meristematic tissue (=to animal stem cells) (found in the Apical Meristem (tissue at top of plant covered by leaves) and lateral mersitem)

horizontal stems (stolons (runners) on top, rhizomes, underground) -this can produce large clones

asexual (vegetative) reproduction

two regions of undifferentiated tissue in plant

42

type of asexual reproduction

plant breaking apart at specific places

fragmentation

43

moss - gametophyte is most conspicuous stage (what you see)

ferns and angiosperms - sporophyte (2n) is more conspicuous, gametophyte is at base, gametophyte stage is very reduced

Examples of alteration of generations (moss, ferns, angiosperms)

44

parts of plant can be male or female

entire plant is male or female

monoecious

diocecious

45

1. generative cell (haploid) within pollen grain divides by mitosis (2 sperm)

2. pollen tube grows, carrying 2 sperm

3. double feritilization

if the egg is fertilized, the ovule develops into seed and ovary into fruit.

Fertilization in angiosperms

46

some or all the resources of the endosperm are diverted to cotyledons (monocots , corn, dicots - bean - both types of angiosperms)

seed development

47

1. growth

2. differentiation

3. morphogenesis

3 process of plant development

48

1. cell division

2. cell expansion (ezymatic cleavage allows cellulose fibers to spread and expand)

both canges tend to be in one direction

most size increase due to cell expansion

two components of plant growth

49

determined by position rather than lineage

correlated with chemical gradients

cellular differentiation

 

50

inhibits axillary buds (cut off top, no inhibiton of axillary buds)

aukin