Chapter 51 - Animal Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 51 - Animal Behavior Deck (37):
1

Behavior

the nervous system's response to a stimulus and is carried out by the muscular or hormonal system

an action carried out by muscles under control of the nervous system in rsponse to a stimulus

2

Observation of Study

Jane Goodall and Chimpanzees

requires careful and time-consuming documentation of behaviors

3

classical ethology

Konad Lorenz and Geese

early studies of a form of learning known as imprinting

experimental manipulations, somewhat artificial

Niko Tinbergen and innate behaviors

animals may respond in a predictable fashion to a stimulus

supernormal stimulus may evoke the strongest response

4

Classical Animal Psychology

rat in a maze

B.F. Skinner - behaviorist school

behavior is infinitely maleable by the environment (all nature, no nurture)

hypothesis disproved

5

fixed action pattern

sequence of unlearned, innate behaviors that is unchangeable

once initiated, usually carried to completion

6

sign stimulus

an external cue that triggers a fixed action pattern

7

Migration

regular, long-distance change in location

8

Animals can orient themselves using...

the position of the sun and their circadian clock

position of the North star

Earth's magnetic field

9

imprinting

behavior that includes learning and innate components and is generally irreversible.

distinguished from other learning by a sensitive period

10

spatial learning

more complex modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of the envrionment

11

associative learning

animals associate one feature of their environment with another

12

social learning

learning through the observation of others and forms the roots of culture 

13

the nervous system's response to a stimulus and is carried out by the muscular or hormonal system

Behavior

14

Jane Goodall and Chimpanzees

requires careful and time-consuming documentation of behaviors

Observation of Study

15

Konad Lorenz and Geese

early studies of a form of learning known as imprinting

experimental manipulations, somewhat artificial

Niko Tinbergen and innate behaviors

animals may respond in a predictable fashion to a stimulus

supernormal stimulus may evoke the strongest response

classical ethology

16

rat in a maze

B.F. Skinner - behaviorist school

behavior is infinitely maleable by the environment (all nature, no nurture)

hypothesis disproved

Classical Animal Psychology

17

sequence of unlearned, innate behaviors that is unchangeable

once initiated, usually carried to completion

fixed action pattern

18

an external cue that triggers a fixed action pattern

sign stimulus

19

regular, long-distance change in location

Migration

20

the position of the sun and their circadian clock

position of the North star

Earth's magnetic field

Animals can orient themselves using...

21

behavior that includes learning and innate components and is generally irreversible.

distinguished from other learning by a sensitive period

imprinting

22

more complex modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of the envrionment

spatial learning

23

animals associate one feature of their environment with another

associative learning

24

learning through the observation of others and forms the roots of culture 

social learning

25

behavioral ecology

the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior

26

stimulus-response chain

each response to a stimulus acts as another stimulus

(mating of fruit flies)

27

innate behavior

behavior with a genetic basis

28

learning

the modification of behaivor based on specific experiences

29

Culture

a system of information transfer through social learning or teaching that influences the behaivor of indivduals ina  population

30

intersexual selection

mates are chosen based on characteristics of of others

31

intrasexual selection

competition between the same sex for mates

32

Agnostic behavior

an often-ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource

33

Game Theory

evaluates alternative strategies in situations where teh outcome depends on the strategies of all individuals involved.

It's a way to understand complex behaviors that rely on relative performance

34

Altruism

describes a behavior that reduces an animal's individual fitness, but increases the fitness of tother indivudals in the population

35

inclusive fitness

an individual can maximize reporductive success by risking himself to hlep those closely related to him

36

coefficient of relatedness & Hamilton's rule

r - fraction of genes shared

rB>C

an altruistic act is favored when the benefit to the recipient times the factor of relatedness is greater than the risk to the individual

37

sociobiology

certain behavioral characteristics exist because they are expressions of genes that have been perpetuated by natural selection