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Flashcards in Animal Form and Function Deck (46):
1

Evolutionary convergence

Different species independently adapt to a similar environmental challenge

2

Exchange with the environment

Occurs as substances dissolved in an aqueous medium
Substances diffuse and are transported across the cells' plasma membranes

3

Organisms with more complex body plans

Highly folded internal surfaces specialized for exchanging materials
Specialized cells and tissues

4

Digestive system

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, anus
Food processing

5

Circulatory system

Heart, blood vessels, blood
Internal distribution of materials

6

Respiratory system

Lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes
Gas exchange

7

Immune and lymphatic systems

Bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, lymph vessels, white blood cells
Body defense against infection

8

Excretory system

Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Disposal of metabolic wastes, regulation of osmotic balance of blood

9

Endocrine system

Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal and other hormone secreting glands
Coordinations of body activities

10

Reproductive system

Ovaries or testes and associated organs
Reproduction

11

Nervous system

Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs
Coordinations of body activities, detection of stimuli and formulation of responses to them

12

Integumentary system

Skin and its derivatives (hair, claws, skin glands, etc.)
Protection against injury, infection, or dehydration; thermoregulation

13

Skeletal system

Skeleton (bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage)
Body support, protection of internal organs, movement

14

Muscular system

Skeletal muscles
Locomotion and other movement

15

4 tissue types

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

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Epithelial tissue

Covers outside of body and lines organs and cavities within the body
Contains cells that are closely joined in sheets
Columnar: column-like cells
Cuboidal: square-shaped cells
Squamous: "squashed" cells

17

Connective tissue

Binds and supports other tissues
Sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix of fibers
Collagenous fibers and elastic fibers (thinner)

18

Examples of connective tissue

Loose connective tissue (holds organs in place)
Fibrous connective tissue (found in tendons and ligaments)
Adipose (fat)
Cartilage
Bone
Blood

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Fibroblasts

Connective tissue matrix: secrete fiber proteins

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Macrophages

Connective tissue matrix: engulf foreign particles and debris by endocytosis

21

Muscle tissue

Composed of long cells (muscle fibers) capable of contracting in response to nerve signals

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3 types of muscle tissue

Skeletal (striated-horizontal stripes, voluntary control)
Cardiac (striated, involuntary)
Smooth (non-striated, involuntary)

23

Nervous tissue

Senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal
Made up of neurons and glial cells

24

Parts of neuron

Cell body (soma)
Axon: transmits signal from one cell to another
Dendrites: receives signal

25

Glial cells

Support and nourishment of long lines of axons

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Homeostasis

Balance between external changes and the animal's internal control mechanisms that oppose the changes

27

Regulator

Uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation
Fluctuations above or below a set point serve as a stimulus that is detected by a sensor and triggers a response
Response returns the variable to the set point

28

Conformer

Allows internal condition to vary with certain external changes

29

Negative feedback

Returns variable to normal range
Most homeostatic control systems function by using this
Buildup of end product shuts system off

30

Positive feedback

Amplifies a stimulus
Example: baby's head pushing against uterus increases contractions until baby is born
Doesn't usually contribute to homeostasis

31

Thermoregulation

Process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range
Insulation (feathers, fur, fat)
Circulatory adaptations (vasodilation, vasoconstriction, etc.)
Evaporative heat loss (sweating, panting)
Behavioral (basking, hibernation, shivering)

32

Endothermic

Generate heat by metabolism
Mammals and birds
Can bask in sun- lowers energy output

33

Ectothermic

Gain heat from external surfaces
Reptiles, bugs, fish, amphibians, etc.

34

4 ways to exchange heat

Radiation
Evaporation
Convection
Conduction

35

Radiation

Transfer of heat between objects that aren't in direct contact

36

Evaporation

Removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing its molecules as gas

37

Convection

Transfer of heat by movement of air or liquid past a surface

38

Conduction

Direct transfer of heat between of molecules of objects in direct contact with each other

39

Vasodilation

Blood vessels enlarge, releasing heat

40

Vasoconstriction

Blood vessels constrict, keeping heat in body

41

Countercurrent heat exchange

Warm blood in arteries transfers heat to cold blood in veins
Takes place in extremities

42

Hypothalamus

Specific part of human brain that controls thermoregulation
Nerve cells function as a thermostat

43

Bioenergetics

Flow of energy through an animal

44

Basal metabolic rate

Metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest

45

Standard metabolic rate

Metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest
Measured at standard temperature- different for each animal

46

Metabolic rate

Inversely proportional to body size among similar animals
Small animals have higher: hearts beat faster and they breathe more times per minute