Bacteria and Archaea Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bacteria and Archaea Deck (19):
1

Prokaryote Characteristics

Unicellular
Lack nuclear envelope
Lack membrane enclosed organelles
Have cell wall (peptidoglycan- bacteria only)
Circular chromosome

2

Photoautotroph

Uses sunlight as energy source to reduce CO2 to sugar

3

Chemoautotroph

Uses inorganic chemicals as energy source to reduce CO2 to sugar

4

Photoheterotroph

Uses light as energy source, but can only consume reduced organic compounds

5

Chemoheterotroph

Uses reduced organic compounds as energy source

6

Gram positive bacteria

Simple cell wall: peptidoglycan traps crystal violet stain

7

Gram negative bacteria

More complex cell wall (outer membrane before peptidoglycan layer): harder to kill, does not retain crystal violet stain

8

Alpha proteobacteria

Rhizobium: fixes nitrogen in roots

9

Beta proteobacteria

Nitrosomonas: oxidizes NH4 to NO2

10

Gamma proteobacteria

Disease causing bacteria such as Salmonella

11

Delta proteobacteria

Myxobacteria: creates fruiting bodies when food is scarce

12

Epsilon proteobacteria

H. pylori: causes stomach ulcers

13

Chlymidias

Bacteria that cause blindness or STDs

14

Spirochetes

Helical bacteria: syhpilis and Lyme disease

15

Cyanobacteria

Photosynthetic bacteria, components of phytoplankton

16

Gram-positive bacteria (phyla)

Actinomycetes: soil, but also TB and leprosy
Streptomyces (anthrax, botulism)
staph, strep, mycoplasmas (no cell wall)

17

Endotoxins

Created inside bacteria and released

18

Exotoxins

Bacteria have a toxic coating

19

Archaea

Extremophiles: can live in places where bacteria cannot (thermal vents, etc.)