Energy and Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Bio 121 > Energy and Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Energy and Metabolism Deck (15):
1

Metabolism

The totality of an organism's chemical reactions

2

Bioenergetics

Study of how organisms manage energy resources

3

Catabolism

Breakdown of complex molecules into simpler compounds
Releases energy

4

Anabolism

Build complicated molecules from simpler ones
Consume energy

5

Energy

The capacity to cause change

6

Potential energy

Stored in matter
Includes chemical energy stored in molecular structures

7

Kinetic energy

Energy associated with motion
Using it decreases potential energy

8

1st law of thermodynamics

Energy can be transferred or transformed, but cannot be created or destroyed

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2nd law of thermodynamics

Spontaneous changes that don't require outside energy increase the entropy of the universe

10

Free energy

Living systems: energy that can do work under cellular conditions

11

Cell's work

Mechanical
Transportation
Chemical

12

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate
Cell's energy shuttle
3 phosphate groups (potential energy stores), ribose, adenine
7.3 kcal/mol energy released in hydrolysis per molecule

13

Enzyme

Catalyst: speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction

14

Cofactors

Non-protein molecules or ions that act as enzyme helpers
Can be bound to active site or bind loosely to substrate

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Coenzymes

Organic molecules serving as cofactors (ex- vitamins)