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Flashcards in Plants Deck (16):
1

Shared characteristics with algae

Eukaryotic, autotrophic, chlorophyll a and b, cell walls with cellulose, starch, division of labor, flagellated sperm, alternation of generations

2

Derived characteristics from algae

Multi-cellular dependent embryos
Walled spores produced in sporangia
Multi-cellular gamete-producing structures (female-archegonia; male-antheridia)
Apical meristems (tip of plant shoot or root from which growth occurrs)

3

Bryophyta

Bryophyte member
Mosses (Sphagnum)
Nonvascular

4

Hepatophyta

Bryophyte member
Liverworts (Marchantia)
Nonvascular

5

Anthocerophyta

Bryophyte member
Hornworts
Nonvascular

6

Liverwort Sexual Lifecycle

Sperm is released from antheridium- travels to archegonium
Sporophyte (diploid) develops in archegonium
Sporophyte produces thallus (long thick sheet- haploid)
Gemma cups on thallus disperse spores (asexual reproduction)

7

Sporopollenin

Outer wall of spores
Protection

8

Traits of seedless vascular plants derived from nonvascular plants

True roots and leaves
True vascular tissue (xylem, phloem)
Lignin (polymer that provides rigidity)
Sporophyte dominant

9

Pterophyta

Seedless vascular plants
Ferns
Fronds (leaves), rhizomes (roots), fiddleheads (new developing leaves)

10

Fern Sexual Lifecycle

Sporangium produce spores (haploid)
Spores develop into gametophytes
Underside of gametophyte contains archegonium and antheridium
Sperm is released from antheridium and travels to archegonium
Fertilization of egg produces zygote
Zygote develops into sporophyte (leaf)
Sporangium are located on underside of leaf

11

Lycophyta

Seedless vascular plants
Club mosses
Range from arctic to tropics
Some extinct species were woody

12

Derived characteristics for gymnosperms

Reduced gametophytes- small and dependent
Megaspore within ovule develops into seeds
Pollen (sperm can spread by air- no need for water)

13

Cycadopyta

Gymnosperm
Zamia- male and female trees (usually only males are planted- females have fruit that smell like decaying flesh)

14

Ginkophyta

Gymnosperm
Ginko biloba: Chinese medicinal plant

15

Gnetophyta

Gymnosperm
Gnetum- trees and vines native to Africa and Asia
Ephedra- produces ephedrine
Welwitschia- Namibian plant with 2 split leaves

16

Coniferophyta

Gymnosperm
Pine, fir, spruce, hemlock, junipers
Needles
Can shed snow