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Flashcards in Bio 121 Lab Exam 2 Deck (66):
1

Chondrocyte

Cell that secretes cartilage matrix

2

Lacuna

"Lake" that surrounds chondrocyte

3

Osteocytes

Structural unit of bone tissue
Rings around Haversian canal; also in lacunae

4

Canaliculi

Small canals that contain extensions of osteocytes
Cracks in between osteocytes

5

Haversian canal

Central canal of bone matrix

6

Ossified matrix

Bone matrix
Ca3(PO4)2

7

Intercalated disks

Cardiac muscle cell-cell junctions
Appear as dark bands in cardiac muscle tissue

8

Stratum corneum

Outermost layer of epidermis
Dead skin
Layer of skin without nuclei

9

P wave

Electrical stimulation of aorta
First wave on EKG

10

QRS wave

Conduction of signal through and contraction of ventricles
Electrical signal goes back up Purkinje fibers
Main spike on EKG

11

T wave

Cells in ventricle are electrically "reset" in preparation for next heartbeat
Wave to the right of QRS in EKG

12

Tidal volume (TV)

Amount of air inspired or expired during normal, quiet respiration

13

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

Amount of air that can be forcefully taken in following a normal inspiration

14

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

Amount of air that can be forcefully expired following a normal expiration

15

Residual volume (RV)

Amount of air that remains trapped in lungs after maximum expiration

16

Vital capacity (VC)

Maximum amount of air that can be forcefully expired after a maximal inspiration
Sum of IRV, TV, and ERV

17

Inspiratory capacity (IC)

Maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal expiration

18

Functional residual capacity (FRC)

Amount of air remaining in lungs after normal expiration

19

Total lung capacity (TLC)

Total amount of air lungs can hold
Sum of TV, IRV, ERV, and RV

20

Seed leaves (cotyledons) monocots vs. dicots

Monocots: 1
Dicots: 2

21

Vascular bundle arrangement monocots vs. dicots

Monocots: scattered throughout stem
Dicots: in ring around stem

22

Flower parts monocots vs. dicots

Monocots: usually in multiples of 3
Dicots: usually in multiples of 4 or 5

23

Leaf venation monocots vs. dicots

Monocots: parallel
Dicots: net-like

24

Root system monocots vs. dicots

Monocots: fibrous
Dicots: usually has taproot

25

Order Orthoptera

Grasshoppers, crickets, katydids

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Order Coleoptera

Beetles

27

Order Diptera

Flies and mosquitoes

28

Order Lepidoptera

Butterflies and moths

29

Order Hymenoptera

Wasps, ants, bees

30

Stridulation

Sound produced by rubbing a hardened ridge (file) against another hardened structure (scraper)
Bugs: mating calls or alarm calls

31

Pronotal humps

Horns/bumps on the pronotum (top of thorax) of male hissing cockroach
Used to distinguish males from females (females have very small bumps or none at all)

32

Glycolysis

"Splitting of sugar"
Oxidation of 1 glucose molecule to 2 pyruvate molecules
Occurs in cytoplasm of cell
2 major phases: energy investment phase and energy payoff phase
Overall yield: 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH

33

Citric acid cycle

Takes place in mitochondrial matrix
Step 1: Acetyl CoA + oxaloacetate -> citrate
Steps 2-8: Citrate -> oxaloacetate
Net result: 3 NADH, 1 GTP, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2

34

Electron transport chain

Electrons from NADH and FADH2 lose energy in several steps
O2: final electron acceptor (forms H2O)
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Electron transfer drives complexes to pump H+ from mitochondrial matrix into intermembrane space

35

Chemiosmosis

Proton motive force: H+ from electron transport chain turns motor, making ATP
Turning of motor generates energy to couple inorganic phosphate in matrix to ADP

36

ATP yield from cellular respiration

30-36 ATP from total cycle
Most come from oxidative phosphorylation

37

Effect of germination on cellular respiration of peas

Germinated peas respire more than non-germinated peas

38

Effect of temperature on cellular respiration of peas

Warm peas respire more than cold peas

39

CO2 and hemoglobin

CO2 produced by citric acid cycle is picked up by hemoglobin
CO2 reacts with water to form H2CO3, which dissociates into H+ and HCO3-
Increase in H+: decrease in pH
Hemoglobin holds less O2 at higher pH
Hemoglobin transports H+ to lungs: releases H+ to form H2CO3 which is then converted to H2O and CO2
CO2 is exhaled

40

Effect of exercise on tidal volume

TV increases during exercise

41

Effect of hyperventilation on breath-holding duration

Hyperventilation increases breath-holding duration

42

C3 vs. C4 first stable products in pathway

C3: first stable product has 3 carbons (phosphoglycerate)
C4: first stable product has 4 carbons (oxaloacetate)

43

C3 vs. C4 carboxylating enzymes

C3: rubisco
C4: PEP carboxylase and rubisco

44

C3 vs. C4 location of Calvin cycle

C3: mesophyll
C4: bundle sheath cells

45

C3 vs. C4 photorespiration

Photorespiration: O2 is fixed when CO2 is scarce (increases when stomata close to conserve H2O during temperature increase)
C3: present
C4: not measurable

46

C3 vs. C4 photosynthesis rate

C4 rate > C3 rate

47

C3 vs. C4 ATP needed to fix CO2

C3: 3
C4: 4

48

4 animal tissue types

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

49

Epithelial tissue

Covers outside of body and lines organs and cavities within the body
Contains cells that are closely joined in sheets
Columnar: column-like cells
Cuboidal: square-shaped cells
Squamous: "squashed" cells

50

Connective tissue

Binds and supports other tissues
Sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix of fibers
Collagenous fibers and elastic fibers (thinner)

51

Examples of connective tissue

Loose connective tissue (holds organs in place)
Fibrous connective tissue (found in tendons and ligaments)
Adipose (fat)
Cartilage
Bone
Blood

52

Fibroblasts

Connective tissue matrix: secrete fiber proteins

53

Muscle tissue

Composed of long cells (muscle fibers) capable of contracting in response to nerve signals

54

3 types of muscle tissue

Skeletal (striated-horizontal stripes, voluntary control)
Cardiac (striated, involuntary)
Smooth (non-striated, involuntary)

55

Nervous tissue

Senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal
Made up of neurons and glial cells

56

Parts of neuron

Cell body (soma)
Axon: transmits signal from one cell to another
Dendrites: receives signal

57

Glial cells

Support and nourishment of long lines of axons

58

Mammalian circulatory pathway

Right ventricle -> pulmonary artery -> lung capillaries (diffusion of oxygen) -> pulmonary vein -> left atrium -> left ventricle -> aorta -> systemic capillaries -> vena cava -> right atrium

59

Atrioventricular valves

Separate atria from ventricles

60

Semilunar valves

Separate ventricles from arteries

61

Systole

Pumping or contraction phase of cardiac cycle

62

Diastole

Relaxation or filling phase of cardiac cycle

63

Sinoatrial (SA) node

Pacemaker: sets rate and timing for cardiac muscle cell contraction
Influenced by nerves, hormones, body temperature, and exercise

64

Heartbeat

1. SA node generates wave of signals to contract
2. Signals are delayed at AV node
3. Signals pass to heart apex and then Purkinje fibers
4. Ventricles contract

65

Cardiac cycle

1. Atrial and ventricular diastole: AV valves open, semilunar valves closed
2. Atrial systole and ventricular diastole
3. Atrial diastole and ventricular systole: AV valves closed, semilunar valves open

66

Air flow through mammalian respiratory system

Nostrils -> pharynx -> trachea -> bronchi (2 main branches of trachea into lungs- 1 branch per lung) -> bronchioles (branches of bronchi) -> alveoli
Alveoli: dead ends where gas exchange occurs