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Flashcards in Plant Structure Deck (67):
1

Plant response to land

Differentiation
Plasticity (change form and structure)
Acclimation
Adaptation
Modular indeterminant growth (can keep growing indefinitely)

2

Blade

Flat part of leaf

3

Petiole

Connection between leaf and stem

4

Taproot

Main part of root
Extends downward into soil
Penetrates deeply

5

Lateral roots

Extensions of main root
Extend outward

6

Node

Part of branch from which a leaf or a new stem can grow
Point at which leaf is attached to stem
Looks like a small bud

7

Internode

Stem segments between nodes

8

Axillary bud

Bud from which a branch can grow

9

3 main plant organs

Roots
Stem
Leaves

10

Adventitious roots

Roots that develop from stems or even leaves
Specialized

11

Root hairs

Absorption rather than anchorage

12

Prop roots

Soggy areas: extra support to prevent plant from falling over

13

Storage roots

Plants like beets use these for storage of food and water

14

"Strangling" aerial roots

Snakelike roots that wrap around host tree
Plant germinates in the branches of host tree

15

Buttress roots

Extend above soil, which is shallow
Give plant extra support

16

Pneumatophores

Structures that grow up from water
Obtain oxygen

17

Apical bud

Top budding of plant
If cut off, plant grows out instead of up

18

Rhizome

Horizontal shoot that grows just below the surface

19

Bulb

Vertical underground shoots consisting of enlarged bases of leaves that store food

20

Stolon

Horizontal shoots that grow along the surface
Reproduction: each outgoing can become new plant

21

Tuber

Enlarged ends of rhizomes or stolons that store food

22

Tendrils

Leaves that wrap around other things for support

23

Spines

Modified leaves found on desert plants

24

Storage leaves

CAM plants
Adapted for storing water

25

Reproductive leaves

Maternity plant: each little leaf along big leaf can start a new plant (asexual reproduction)

26

Bracts

Brightly colored leaves found on poinsettias
Attract pollinators

27

3 plant tissue types

Ground
Dermal
Vascular

28

Ground tissue

Bulk of cells
Functions: photosynthesis, storage, support

29

Pith

Ground tissue that is internal to vascular tissue

30

Cortex

Ground tissue that is external to vascular tissue

31

Dermal tissue

Epidermal cells, periderm (bark), cuticle (waxy part)
Functions: covers, protects, gas exchange
Includes root hair, trichomes, and guard cells

32

Trichomes

Leaf hairs
Provide defense against insects

33

Guard cells

Surround stomata- allows CO2 to go into leaf

34

Vascular tissue

Xylem and phloem
Functions: transport and support

35

Xylem

Vascular tissue that transports H2O from roots to leaves
Dead at maturity
Secondary cell walls
Ring or spiral pattern
Pits/perforation plates

36

Phloem

Vascular tissue that transports sugar from leaves to roots

37

Stele

Vascular tissue of root or stem

38

Vascular bundles

Separate strands containing xylem and phloem
Comprise steles of stems and leaves

39

Meristem

Perpetually embryonic tissue
Stem cells: can grow into any part of plant

40

Apical meristem

Tips of roots and shoots
Tissue types arise from specific regions
Primary growth (elongation)

41

Protoderm

Meristem region that gives rise to epidermis

42

Procambium

Meristem region that gives rise to phloem/xylem

43

Ground meristem

Meristem region that gives rise to ground tissue

44

Lateral meristem

Secondary growth (thickening)

45

Vascular cambium

Adds secondary xylem and phloem- thickening

46

Root cap

Protects apical meristem as root pushes through soil
Located at bottom of root

47

Zone of cell division

Portion of root that contains apical meristem and its derivatives
Area where new root cells are produced
Located at bottom of root

48

Zone of elongation

Located at midsection of root
Area where growth occurs as root cells elongate

49

Zone of differentiation

Located at top of root
Area where cells complete differentiation and become distinct cell types
Xylem and phloem form

50

Secondary growth

Secondary phloem is added to the outside of the vascular cambium and the inside of the primary phloem
Secondary xylem is added to the inside of the vascular cambium and the outside of the primary xylem

51

Vascular rays

Radial files of mostly parenchyma cells that connect the secondary xylem and phloem

52

Early wood

Wood that consists of secondary xylem cells with relatively large diameters and thin cell walls
Maximizes delivery of water to new leaves

53

Late wood

Wood composed of thick walled cells
Don't transport as much water, but provide more support

54

Rings of trees

Layer of xylem
Show age of tree

55

Differences between eudicots and monocots

Roots: eudicot has xylem and phloem in the center; monocot has parenchyma in center
Stems: eudicot's vascular bundles form a ring; monocot's vascular bundles are scattered throughout

56

Central vacuole

Storage compartments of plant cells

57

Plasmodesmata

Channels connecting each plant cell to its neighbor

58

3 plant cell types

Parenchyma
Collenchyma
Sclerenchyma

59

Parenchyma

Least specialized of plant cell types
Thin primary cell wall (no secondary)
Large vacuole
Photosynthesis and storage
Phloem= specialized example of cell type

60

Collenchyma

"Strands"- celery
Thickened primary walls (no secondary or lignin)
Support for growing tissues

61

Sclerenchyma

Thickened secondary wall
Lignin- hard, rigid polymer
Cells are dead upon plant maturation
Fibers (hemp)
Sclerids (nut shells, gritty parts of pears)
Xylem- specialized example of cell type

62

Tracheids

Type of xylem
Tapered, elongated cells
Found in angiosperms and gymnosperms

63

Vessels

Type of xylem
Long tubes that grow end-to-end
Good at conducting water
Found in angiosperms only

64

Sieve tubes

Long tubes in phloem of angiosperms through which nutrients are transported

65

Sieve plates

End walls between sieve tubes
Have pores that facilitate the flow of fluid from one tube to another

66

Companion cells

Connected to sieve tubes by plasmodesmata
Assist functions of sieve tubes

67

Layers of leaf

Upper epidermis
Palisade mesophyll (columnar and stacked side by side)
Spongy mesophyll (scattered throughout)
Lower epidermis