Plant Reproduction Flashcards Preview

Bio 121 > Plant Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Plant Reproduction Deck (33):
1

Apomixis

Clone of mother plant
Seeds, but no sperm

2

4 flower organs

Sepal
Petal
Stamen
Carpel

3

Sepal

Photosynthesis
Protection of unopened floral bud
Growing plant: green bud covering enclosing unopened flower

4

Petal

Brightly colored
Attract pollinators

5

Carpel

Female reproductive system of plant
Stigma, style, ovary

6

Ovary

Base of carpel
Contains ovule (houses embryo sac)

7

Style

Neck of carpel
Connects stigma with ovary

8

Stigma

Top of carpel
Sticky: captures pollen

9

Receptacle

Attaches floral organs to stem

10

Stamen

Male reproductive system of plant
Filament and anther

11

Anther

Pollen-containing portion of stamen
Top of stamen

12

Filament

Stalk of stamen

13

Perfect

Containing both male and female parts

14

Complete

Containing all 4 floral organs

15

Dioecious species

Either male or female flower on 1 plant

16

Monoecious

Both male and female flowers on 1 plant

17

Thrum and pin flowers

Thrum: stamens are above styles
Pin: styles are above stamens
Outcrossing: thrums are good at pollinating pins and vice versa

18

Angiosperm life cycle

Pollen (n) from anther sticks to stigma
Pollen releases sperm (n), which travel down to egg
Sperm fertilizes egg
Zygote (2n) becomes embryo (2n) (seed)
Seed germinates
Mature sporophyte plant (2n) grows

19

Development of male gametophyte

Microsporophyll (2n): stamen ->
Microsporangia (2n): pollen sac ->
Microsporocyte (2n) ->
Meiosis ->
4 microspores (n): pollen tetrad ->
Mitosis ->
Microgametophyte (n): pollen grain (has nucleus and generative cell that forms 2 sperm)

20

Development of female gametophyte

Megasporophyll (2n): carpel ->
Megasporangia (2n): ovule ->
Megasporocyte (2n): female spore/"mother cell" ->
Meiosis ->
Megaspores (n): 3 out of 4 degenerate ->
Mitosis ->
Megagametophyte (n): embryo sac w/egg

21

Contents of megagametophyte

3 antipodal cells (opposite end of sac as egg)
2 polar nuclei (middle of sac)
1 egg
2 synergids (surround egg)

22

Pollinators

Many different varieties: moths and butterflies, flies, bats, birds, bees, etc.
Reason why there are so many different species of angiosperms

23

Double fertilization

2 sperm are released by pollen grain
1 fuses with egg, creating zygote (2n)
Other fuses with 2 polar nuclei, creating endosperm (3n)

24

Endosperm

Storage structure for growing plant

25

Cotyledons

Seed leaves on embryo
Monocot: 1
Dicot: 2

26

Development of embryo

Zygote -> basal cell and terminal cell -> terminal cell turns into proembryo and basal cell produces suspensor (umbilical cord) -> proembryo develops cotyledons, shoot apex, root apex, and seed coat

27

Simple fruit

Develops from single carpel or several fused carpels of 1 flower
Example: pea

28

Aggregate fruit

Develops from many separate carpels of 1 flower
Example: raspberry

29

Multiple fruit

Develops from many carpels of the many flowers that form as an inflorescence
Example: pineapple

30

Accessory fruit

Develops largely from tissues other than ovary
Example: apple (ovary=core; receptacle=part we eat)

31

Fruit and seed dispersal

Wind: dandelion seeds, tumbleweeds, winged fruit of maple
Water: coconut seed inside buoyant husk
Animal: squirrel burying seeds, seeds dispersed in black bear feces, ant carrying seed to nest

32

Eudicot seed

Example: bean
2 seed leaves (cotyledons): storage and covering of developing leaf
Seed coat covers seed
Radicle (in bent part of bean): embryonic root

33

Monocot seed

Example: corn
1 seed leaf (cotyledon): developing leaf
Coleoptile: covers young shoot
Coleorhiza: covers young root
Endosperm: food storage