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Cmbm 2 Gopi > Antibiotics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (143)
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Vancomycin

MRSA
penicilin resistant S. pneumo
susceptible enterococcal infections

1

resistant worries for Vancomycin

resistant gene on plasmid(means very mobile gene) being picked up by MRSA

2

Drug for vancomycin resistant Enterococci

Dancomycin

3

Target of beta lactam antibiotics

Peptidoglycan synthesis

4

Aerobic gram +

staph
strep
enterococci
listeria

5

anaerobes

clostridium
actinomyces
peptostreptococcus
propionibacterium
bacteroides
fusobacterium
prevotella

6

aerobic (facultative) gram negative

enterobacteriaceae
neisseria
pseudomonas
haemophilus

7

Atypical/intracellular bacteria

mycoplasma
chlamydia
legionella
mycobacterium
rickettsia
spirochetes

8

Examples of Aminoglycosides

streptomycin
gentamicin
amikacin

9

toxicities of aminoglycosides

nephrotoxicity - see elevated creatinine
ototoxicity

10

Macrolides and Ketolides

Broad spectrum but not deep
Erythomycin
Clarithromycin
Azithromycin (known as z pack)
Telithromycin - ketolide

11

mechanism of Macrolides

bind 23S rRNA of the 50s ribosome
prevents protein elongation

12

Telithromycin

binds at 2 sites
ketolides

13

Erythromycin

can cause GI upset - makes pt nauseous

14

Azithromycin

longer half life

15

clinical uses for Macrolides

empiric therapy for community aquired pneumonia (CAP)

16

DOC for legionella, mycoplamsa, and chlamydia

Macrolides

17

Most aerobic gram neg rods are resistant to

Macrolides

18

Resistance to Macrolides

Efflux pump
Enzyme mediated methylation of binding site on 23S ribosome

19

Examples of Lincosamide

Clindamycin

20

Clidamycin active against

generally anaerobic drug
aerobic gram + including MRSA and s. pneumo
gram + and - anaerobes
some protozoans

21

mechanism of Tetracyclines

bind reversibly to 30s subunit
blocks binding of tRNA

22

What is clindamycin not useful for?

aerobic gram negatives

23

Tetracycline

broad range many aerobic gram pos and neg
anaerobes
Atypicals - especially useful
some protozoa

24

Adverse reactions to Tetracyclines

Not given to childern under 8
Not used in pregnancy
Cause photosensitization - bad sunburn

25

Fluoroquniolones

Ciprofloxacin - below the waist
Gatifloxacin
levofloxacin
oflaxacin
moxifloxacin

26

DNA gyrase inhibitor

Fluoroquinolones

27

clinical uses of fluoroquinolones

broad spectrum
aerobic, gram neg bacteria
active against strains of staph and strept and many atypical

28

toxicities of Fluoroquinolones

may damage growing cartilage - so no childern under 18 or pregnant women
Black box warning of tendon rupture

29

Anti folate drugs

TMP/SMX
sulfonamides
trimethoprim