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Flashcards in Carbs 1 and 2 Deck (56)
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0

Do our bodies utilize D or L sugars?

D

1

what is the OH group's linkage if it is below the plane of the sugar?

alpha

2

what is the OH group's linkage if it is above the plane of the sugar?

beta

3

what type of bonds link sugars?

glycosidic bond

4

what sort of group is found on a reducing sugar?

reactive carbonyl (Hemiacetals)
which can reduce metals hence the name
swaps H+ on the carbonyl group with an O

5

Anomeric carbon

reducing carbon on a sugar

6

Which end of a oligo or poly - saccharide has the anomeric carbon?

reducing end

7

A patient is found to be unable to absorb disaccharides, what could be the issue?

An enzyme in the gut called disaccharidases which are tethered to cells in the lumen and breakdown disaccharides into monosaccharides. this is could be the culprit because we can only absorb monosaccharides

8

what cleaves an alpha 1,6 bond?

Isomaltase

9

What cleaves an alpha 1,1 bond?

Trehalose

10

what breaks an beta 1,4 bond?

Lactase

Lactose = galactose and glucose

11

what pathways does G6P participate in?

Glycolysis
Pentose phosphate pathway
glycogen synthesis

12

what type of link bonds branches to glycogen molecules?

alpha 1,6

13

every polymer of glycogen is attached to _____

glycogenin

which is a protein

14

what enzyme is responsible for the conversion of G6P to G1P?

phosphoglucomutase

15

what are the building blocks of glycogen?

UDP-Glucose

17

What starts the seeding process for glycogen?

When glycogenin glycosylates itself by attaching the glucosyl residue of UDP-glucose to the hydroxyl chain of a Ser residue in the protein

18

What link connects branches to the core glycogen molecule?

alpha 1,6

19

glycogen degradation proceeds through a _______ rxn

phosphorolysis
use of phosphate to break the bond

20

Why is an ATP not required to make G6P for glycolysis ?

G1P and G6P are energetically equivalent

21

what is the activity of glycogen phosphorylase?

will cut down the glycogen chains to "limit dextrins"

22

Glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase are reciprocally regulated.by...

phosphorylation with ATP

23

When glycogen phosphorylase B is phosphorylated then it is (active/inactive)

active

24

Insulin secretion in response to an increase in blood sugar levels induces ...

more GLUT4 receptors to come to the cell surface to increase uptake of glucose

25

Glucagon signals to the liver result in ...

the conversion of glycogen phosphorylase B to glycogen phosphorylase A and the inhibition of glycogen synthase

26

Fructose metabolism occurs in ...

the liver

27

What does the Pentose phosphate pathway generate?

5 carbon sugars and NADPH

28

What intermediate links the Fructose metabolism pathway to Glycolysis?

DHAP - dihydroxyacetone phosphate

29

Name the three enzymes involved in Fructose metabolism

Fructokinase
Aldolase B
Triose Kinase

30

Hereditary Fructose intolerance is characterized by ....

insufficient Aldolase B activity causing pts to accumulate very large stores of F1P
symptoms: Jaundice, vomiting and convulsions