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0

person has mitochondrial disorder where lack malate and aspartate shuttles what would be expected during fasting?

OAA would be trapped in the mitochondria

1

reducing end of sugar?

end that is free and unbound carbon for reactions

2

Two alleles for given trait, Ga and Gb, if the genotype frequency of GaGa is 25%, what is the genotype frequency for the heterozygous?

use p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
each term is geno frequency
p and q are allele frequency

so p = 0.5 then q = 0.5

3

question 84 from buxtons book?
what antibiotic inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase?

so would be drug that inhibits DNA synthesis
Fluoroquinolones - so cipro,

4

question 85
pt with pseudomonas septicemia and given b lactam antibiotic with is only against aerobic, gram neg bacteria. What antibiotic was she given?

Monobactam - Aztroenam

5

Question 87
22yo with PID. Requires coverage of anaerobes. What antibiotic should she be given?

clindamycin or metronidazole

6

Macrollides

block protein synthesis

7

what can cross the BBB?

ceftriaxone

8

Question 90
child develops impetigo. Given antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis. What drug did the child receive?

Ampicillin or cephalexin are choices
but most likely S. Aureus so pick cephalexin (are resistant to penicillinases made by s. Aureus)

9

question 91
pt with CA pneumonia.
Given two antibiotic one block protein syntehsis by binding 50 s and other is beta lactam. What antibiotics was she given?

Azithromycin (macrolide) and ceftriaxone (beta lactam)

10

For test, know for antibiotics

cateogories
how they work/mechanisms
and examples

11

impacggted wisdone tooth was removed. area had been sore but appearance of eruptions through the skin. exudates showed neg for aerobic. branched filamentous. what is causing abcess?

actinomyces israelii

12

headache, chills and muscle aches with maculopapular rash with petechiae. Started on palms and soles and spread inward. What is the bacteria?

This is rocky mountain spotted fever
rickettsia rickettsii which is transmitted by dermacentor tick

13

Prowazekii rash

starts on trunk and moves outwards

14

No gram stain could mean organism is

intracelluar or does not have a cell wall

15

Mycoplasma pneumonia

cold agglutin (IgM) titers are a clue
these are directed to glycolipids on the bacteria
at cold temps, it crosses reacts with a molecule of RBCs

16

what test is being performed when serum test is done by cross reacting antibodies with RBCs

Cold agglutin test

17

Legionella likes what kind of envirnoment?

humid

18

Q fever

Coxiella
from cows

19

during maturation of T cells in thymus, immature T cell expresses several molecules to assist the cell in navigating within the thymus. VLLA4 and VLA5 help keep the immature lymphocyte in the thymus by binding to what?

VLA 6 - binds laminin
4 and 5 binds fibronectin - this is the answer
collectins - recognize certain patterns

20

45 male pt shows glucose level 150 after a meal. whats going on? normal is 110

high levels of G6P

with energy coming, you are filling pathways, excess sugar goes to fat after glycogen storage is filled (about a days worth can be stored)

21

Fat and sugars in general are

storage forms of electrons

22

catabolism is

oxidative
release of energy

23

45 yo obese male shows glucose at 135 after an overnight fast. normal is 110 which tissue has the highest specific rate of glucose utilization? what has lowest rate of ATP production?

brain does not use most ATP
Muscle is not lowest ATP consumer
RBCs have no mitochondria so use a ton of glucose, use only glycolysis.
Cardia not lowest ATP production

24

45 yo male shows glucose of 135 after an overnight fast. what is the rate limiting step in glycolysis?

PFK1
Hexokinase is regulated
PFK2 - makes regulatory molecule F26BP

25

Pt is alcoholic. hasnt eaten. Why is patient hypoglycemic?

High NADH/NAD+ ratio impaired gluconeogenesis
ethanol to acetic acid requires NAD+ generate large amount of NADH
major gluconeo precursors ___ ____ ___ are diverted to generate more NAD for ethanol metabolism
glycerol lactate and AA

26

irrversible injury to myocardial fibers, what changes occured?

nuclear pyknosis

27

Dysplasia of tissue and how do you identify?

dysplasia - disorganization of the tissue

28

differentiate between changes that take place during hyperplasia vs. metaplasia

be able to ID these changes in histo slides
remember to use context clues from the question stem

29

Pt EKG say MI happened. Acute MI. thrombus in coronary artery. TPA infused. Reperfusion in ischemic heart tissue caused by release of activated ROS from what cells?

Neutrophils