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Flashcards in Anxiety and depression Deck (25)
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1

Name some common anxiety disorders

generalised anxiety disorder
post traumatic stress disorder
phobias
obsessive compulsive disorder OCD

2

Describe the symptoms of anxiety

palpitations, tachycardia, SOB, dizzieness, sweating, tremor, panic

3

name some non pharmalogical treatments of anxiety

CBT, meditation, mindfullness, relaxation techniques

4

Which main 2 pharmacological approach is used to treat anxiety

beta blockers - propanol
benzodiazepine

5

what must you be careful of if you take this regularly

stopping immediately - has a rebound effect

6

Name 7 effects of valium

sedative
anticonvulsive
hypnotic
muscle relaxant
decreases aggresion
anxiolytic
amnesic

7

Valium
1.DWT?
2.SEs?
3. be careful when prescribing to ?
4. two other positives

1.dependance, withdrawal, tolerance, therefor abuse potential
2. can cause aggression rarely (paradoxical seizures)
3.elderly people
4. safe in overdose and doesnt have any drug interactions

8

What would you prescribe benzodiazepine with a short half life for and one with a long half life for

short - hypnotics
long - anti anxiety

9

How do benzodiazepines work?

increase GABA receptor affinity for Cl- hyperpolerisation of neurones

10

1. Two more drugs that can be used to treat anxiety?
2. -ve to using one of them

buspirone and SSRis
takes a long time to work

11

What must you have to diagnose depression

Must include
1. depressed mood
2. loss of interest
and 3 from..
weight change, altered sleep, agitation, fatigue, suicidal thoughts, worthless feeling, cant concentrate

12

how do you treat bipolar + mechanism

lithium salts - inhib Glycogen synthase kinase 3

13

genetics vs environment in depression?

sever depression mostly genetics
mild depression mostly environment

14

Describe the 3 theries of depression

1. amine dysfunction - reduced NA/5ht (or receptor down reg)
althered dopamine function - reward pathways?
2. HPA axis dysfunction - to much cortisol
3. neurotropic and neuroplasticity hypothesis - physical changes in cortical areas

15

What evidence leads us to believe HPA theory of depression

insensitivity to DEX (usually suppresses cortisol)

16

Name 3 non pharamological treatments to depression

CBT, Electroconvulsive shock treatment , St johns wort

17

TCAs - mechanisms

block amine reuptake
H2 antag (sedative SE)
M antag (CV SE)
block amine reuptake peripheraly (CV SE)

18

what are ipronizid, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, moclobemide?

MAOi's

19

Problems with MAOis

initial euphoria, slow onset, some Muscarinic SE, insomnia, weight gain and liver damage

20

What interaction must you be careful of if taking a MAOi

cheese reaction - tyramine is usually broken down by MAO - if not can get into head and cause increased dopamine = hypertension

21

Side effects to SSRIs

neausea, loss of libido, akathisia (restless) agitation

22

what does akathisia mean

restless

23

Why do all antidepressants take so long to work

10/20 days. autoreceptors turn down the amount of amines released - decrease APs and block further release of NT

24

SSRI SNRI NaSSA NARI mean?

selective seritonin reuptake inhibitor
seratonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor
Noradrenergic and specific serotinergic
noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor

25

Benefits of using a selective
1. 5HT2 antag
2. 5HT1 antag

1. less sexual side effects
2. less nausea