Epilepsy NOT FINISHED Flashcards Preview

FBN > Epilepsy NOT FINISHED > Flashcards

Flashcards in Epilepsy NOT FINISHED Deck (26)
1

How do you determine the class of seizure

location of onset, type of discharge, pattern of spread

2

describe the 2 types of seizures

partial( starts in a focus and spreads) and generalised (boths hems)

3

list the type of generalised seizures

typical absence, myoclonus, tonic clonic, atypical absence tonic, atonic

4

describe an absence seizure

mainly childhood onset
frequent short lived brief attacks
sudden loss and return of consciousness
no aura no post ictal
some involuntary movement eg walking around, gaze everted

5

describe a myoclonus

sudden bilateral arm jerking, often worse in the mornings, precipitated by sleep deprivation and alcohol

6

when does myoclonus occur

epilepsy syndromes and certain non epileptic causes

7

describe tonic clonic seizures

sudden onset fall. tonic phase - muscles stiffen
clonic phase limbs jerk. tongue bitten and incontinence, noisy breathing. headache and muscle pain after

8

describe an atonic seizure

muscles suddenly lose strength and you drop
very short and common in children

9

what does atonic seizure often occur in

learning disability

10

name the 3 categorise of partial seizures

simple - aware
complex - areness lose
2y generalised - evolves to TC

11

Describe a temporal lobe seizure

AURA - epigastric rising, olfactory gustation, deja vu
SEIZURE - blank stare, oral + manual automatisms (lip smacking and movements)
POST ICTAL

12

describe a frontal lobe seizure

wild vocalisation, quick recovery, movement (twisting grimicing) upper limbs tonic clonic

13

process of a seizure in relation to a neurone

1. initiation - increased frequency ossilations
2. depolarisation
3. oscillation
4. synchronisation - local and long range effect (synaptic and non synaptic e.g. gap junctions)
5. termination - synaptic inhibition

14

What goes wrong in absence seizures?

bursts of abnormal activity from the cortex --> thalamus
reticular nucleus inhibiting TC relay

15

drugs that can worsen absence seizures

carbamezapine, phenytoin, baclofen

16

what causes some epilepsys

mutations in Na channels therefor increased function

17

Name 4 mechanisms of epilepsy treatments

promote inhibition (benzodiazepines)
reducing gaba reuptake - longer inhibition
increasing potassium channels
blocking AMPA receptors

18

difference between idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy + how they respond to treatment

Idiopathic - no associated neurological damage
responds well to treatment
Symptomatic - treatment resistant - neurological deficit?

19

name some causes of symptomatic epilepsy

cerebal palsy, stroke, tumors, trauma, hoppocampal sclerosis

20

what must you do when starting epilepsy treatment

start low dose and explain side effects and interactions

21

main treatment for general epilepsy and partial epilepsy

G - sodium valproate
P - carbamazepine

22

describe carbamazepine
what is it NOT helpful for
1 -ve

acts on sodium channels to suppress bursts
absence and myoclonus
causes enzyme induction

23

Which seizure is valproate used for
1-ve

myoclonus, absence and photosensitive seizures
important side effect, especially women ( affects fertility)

24

phenytoin
not helpful for

not good for myoclonus and absence, inhibs Na channels, causes some enzyme induction

25

what is lamotrigine

new first line for G and P

26

which seizures should you use for
1 valproate, ethosuzimide, lamotrigine, benzos
2 valproate, benzos, levetricetam
3 CBZ, valproate, pheytoin, topiraminde
4 carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate

1. absence
2. myoclonus
3. GTC
4. partial