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Flashcards in Parkinsons Deck (21)
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1

Symptoms of parkinsons

rigidity (akinesia) , bradykinesia, poor posture, mask like expression, tremors

LATE STAGE - endocrine dysfunction, depression, dementia

2

Descibe how we would usually initiate a movement from the basal ganglia + how this is disrupted in parkinsons

1. stimulus
2. assemble a motor plan from memory store
3. execute motor plan
4. initiate, run and sequence

parkinsons can assmeble motor plan just cant execute, run or sequence them

3

which dopamine pathway is involved in parkinsons

nigrostriatal

4

how much degeneration do you need in parkinsons before symptoms occur

70%

5

Describe the causes of the psychological, endocrine and motor symptoms of parkinsons

psych - lack of dopamine in mesolimbic areas, lack of cortical NA and ACh
motor - dopamine in the striatum decreased, neuropeptides in the striatum decreased
endocrine - decreased hypothalmic amines

6

name two types of imaging you can use to diagnose parkinsons and how they work

PET and SPECT
allow us to visualise and qualtify dopaminergic neurones

7

List the 4 main causes of cell death in parkinsons and where it occurs

oxidative stress
mitochondrial dysfunction
proteosoms dysfunction
lewy bodies

8

What are lewy bodies and name the genes that can cause them

eosinophilic inclusions with a-syncuclein core. - contributes to dementia in 50% parkinson patients
PARK1 gene codes for a- synuclein

9

what is carbidopa

peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor

10

1. list 5 unwanted effects from L Dopa treatment of parkinsons
2. what is the effect of long term parkinson treatment

choreic movement (violent)
dose can wear off at the end of the day
nausea and anorexia
hypotension
psyhotic effects

rapid decline in control, by 10-15 years treatment not effective

11

What are bromocriptine, ropinirole, rotigotive and why are they effective

dopamine agonists (D2)
post synaptic D receptors not altered

12

Why do you use a D2 agonist not a D1

D2 receptors are mainly found in the basalganglia

13

What are Deprenyl and Entacapone and how to they work

MAO inhibitor and COMT inhibitor.
COMT and MAO break down dopamine (in any order)

14

Name the 4 types of drugs that treat parkinsons + one that controls the tremor

-L Dopa, MAOi, Dopamine agonists, amantidine,
-M antag controls tremor

15

How do the different D1 and D2 receptors in striatum cause parkinson symptoms

D2 receptors inhibitory on the inhibitory movement pathway. by knocking out the dopaminergic neurones less inhibition of the inhib pathway therefor increased anti movement

D1 receptors are excitatory of the pro pathway therefor by knocking them out decreased pro movement

16

How does mutations in PARK2 gene cause parkinsons and what type of parkinsons does it cause

codes for parkin which is part of the ubiquitin proteosome, cause early onset parkinsons NO lewy bodies

17

Mutations in LRRK2 gene can lead to

parkinsons

18

Name two drug induced causes of parkinsons

antipsychotics and MPTP (fake heroin)

19

Causes of huntingtons

mutant huntingtons gene, upreg BDNF, DNF loss

20

How is huntingtons treated?

not effective, some improvement by decreasing dopamine function

21

What causes tourettes and how is it treated

altered basal ganglia function
dopamine receptor antagonist