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M2M Unit III > Apoptosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Apoptosis Deck (76)
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1

The defining morphological feature of _____ is a collapse of the nucleus.

apoptosis

2

What is lymphoproliferative syndrome?

an autoimmune disease where apoptosis fails to occur

3

Fragmentation of DNA seen in apoptosis is via an _____ that produces up to 300,000 ds DNA breaks per chromosome.

endonuclease

4

_____ and _____ result in the classic appearance of apoptosis.

Caspase-3; caspase-9

4

Why are lymphocytes so sensitive to radiation?

So they will kill themselves rather than multiply if damaged and possibly result in autoimmunitiy

5

Inflammatory molecules attract WBCS, primarily _____.

macrophages

5

A ______ consists of a core of histone proteins wrapped by about 180 base pairs of DNA.

nucleosome

6

FLIP competes with caspase-8 for binding to ____, and this inhibits apoptosis signaling.

FADD

7

All the _____ in a normal plasma membrane is confined to the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer.

phosphatidylserine (PS)

7

____ and ____ are pro-apoptotic proteins that replace Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL when the suicide signal is received.

Bim; PUMA

8

_______ in the cytoplasm activates a cytoplasmic protein called Apaf-1.

Cytochrome C

9

In the other CTL mechanism, the ____ secretes granzymes and perforin that together deliver apoptosis-inducing molecules to its intended target.

killer cell

10

Many experts estimate that it takes about 7 mutations for a cell to become ______.

fully, clinically, malignant

10

FLIP competes with _____ for binding to FADD, and this inhibits apoptosis signaling.

caspase-8

11

A nucleosome consists of a core of histone proteins wrapped by about ____ of DNA.

180 base pairs

11

What enzyme distributes PS equally on both sides of the membrane during apoptosis?

scramblase

12

Bax makes the _____ permeable and cytochrome C is released into the cytoplasm.

mitochondrial membrane

13

A _____ that recognizes a cell as apoptotic does not become activated.

macrophage

14

zeiosis

boiling action of the plasma membrane

15

In the other CTL mechanism, the killer cell secretes ______ and ______ that together deliver apoptosis-inducing molecules to its intended target.

granzymes; perforin

16

Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are _____ on the mitochondrial membrane.

anti-apoptotic proteins

17

A nucleosome is the ______ of DNA.

first stage of compaction

18

Apaf-1 activates the protease caspase-9, and it activates _____.

caspase-3

18

What activates capsase-3 in the intrinsic pathway?

caspase-9

20

apoptotic bodies

small pieces of the cell

21

FLIP competes with caspase-8 for binding to FADD, and this inhibits _____.

apoptosis signaling

22

____ activates the protease caspase-9, and it activates caspase-3.

Apaf-1

23

Apaf-1 activates the protease ____, and it activates caspase-3.

caspase-9

24

If a molecule of PS strays to the outer leaflet, ____ returns it to the correct position.

flippase

24

Cytochrome C in the cytoplasm activates a cytoplasmic protein called ____.

Apaf-1