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M2M Unit III > Apoptosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Apoptosis Deck (76):
1

The defining morphological feature of _____ is a collapse of the nucleus.

apoptosis

2

What is lymphoproliferative syndrome?

an autoimmune disease where apoptosis fails to occur

3

Fragmentation of DNA seen in apoptosis is via an _____ that produces up to 300,000 ds DNA breaks per chromosome.

endonuclease

4

_____ and _____ result in the classic appearance of apoptosis.

Caspase-3; caspase-9

4

Why are lymphocytes so sensitive to radiation?

So they will kill themselves rather than multiply if damaged and possibly result in autoimmunitiy

5

Inflammatory molecules attract WBCS, primarily _____.

macrophages

5

A ______ consists of a core of histone proteins wrapped by about 180 base pairs of DNA.

nucleosome

6

FLIP competes with caspase-8 for binding to ____, and this inhibits apoptosis signaling.

FADD

7

All the _____ in a normal plasma membrane is confined to the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer.

phosphatidylserine (PS)

7

____ and ____ are pro-apoptotic proteins that replace Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL when the suicide signal is received.

Bim; PUMA

8

_______ in the cytoplasm activates a cytoplasmic protein called Apaf-1.

Cytochrome C

9

In the other CTL mechanism, the ____ secretes granzymes and perforin that together deliver apoptosis-inducing molecules to its intended target.

killer cell

10

Many experts estimate that it takes about 7 mutations for a cell to become ______.

fully, clinically, malignant

10

FLIP competes with _____ for binding to FADD, and this inhibits apoptosis signaling.

caspase-8

11

A nucleosome consists of a core of histone proteins wrapped by about ____ of DNA.

180 base pairs

11

What enzyme distributes PS equally on both sides of the membrane during apoptosis?

scramblase

12

Bax makes the _____ permeable and cytochrome C is released into the cytoplasm.

mitochondrial membrane

13

A _____ that recognizes a cell as apoptotic does not become activated.

macrophage

14

zeiosis

boiling action of the plasma membrane

15

In the other CTL mechanism, the killer cell secretes ______ and ______ that together deliver apoptosis-inducing molecules to its intended target.

granzymes; perforin

16

Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are _____ on the mitochondrial membrane.

anti-apoptotic proteins

17

A nucleosome is the ______ of DNA.

first stage of compaction

18

Apaf-1 activates the protease caspase-9, and it activates _____.

caspase-3

18

What activates capsase-3 in the intrinsic pathway?

caspase-9

20

apoptotic bodies

small pieces of the cell

21

FLIP competes with caspase-8 for binding to FADD, and this inhibits _____.

apoptosis signaling

22

____ activates the protease caspase-9, and it activates caspase-3.

Apaf-1

23

Apaf-1 activates the protease ____, and it activates caspase-3.

caspase-9

24

If a molecule of PS strays to the outer leaflet, ____ returns it to the correct position.

flippase

24

Cytochrome C in the cytoplasm activates a cytoplasmic protein called ____.

Apaf-1

25

Many experts estimate that it takes about ___ mutations for a cell to become fully, clinically, malignant.

7

25

For cancer progression, mutations that ____ may be just as important as those that stimulate growth.

inhibit death

26

Bim and PUMA are pro-apoptotic proteins that replace Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL when _____.

the suicide signal is received

27

A nucleosome consists of a core of _____ wrapped by about 180 base pairs of DNA.

histone proteins

28

____ competes with caspase-8 for binding to FADD, and this inhibits apoptosis signaling.

FLIP

29

Bim and PUMA are ____ that replace Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL when the suicide signal is received.

pro-apoptotic proteins

30

The defining morphological feature of apoptosis is a _____.

collapse of the nucleus

31

What happens to the mitochondria in necrosis?

it swells

32

What is the purpose of zeiosis?

allows the cell to tear itself apart into apoptotic bodies

33

CD95 transduces a signal into the cell’s interior, which recruits an _____ called ___, which activates caspase-8.

adaptor molecule; FADD

35

The effect of the inflammatory process is _____, _____, and, if the stroma has been damaged, _____.

debris removal, injury resolution, scar formation

35

PS

phosphatidylserine

35

What activates capsase-3 in the extrinsic pathway?

caspase-8

36

Early in apoptosis cells shrink remarkably, losing about _____ in a few seconds.

a third of their volume

37

What is morphogenetic death?

apoptosis of developing cells to give the body form and shape

38

Early in apoptosis cells ____ remarkably, losing about a third of their volume in a few seconds.

shrink

39

In the _____ pathway, the CTL upregulates expression of a surface molecule called Fas ligand (FasL, CD95L).

extrinsic

41

For cancer progression, mutations that inhibit death may be just as important as those that ____.

stimulate growth

43

If a molecule of _____ strays to the outer leaflet, flippase returns it to the correct position.

phosphatidylserine (PS)

44

Fragmentation of DNA seen in apoptosis is via an endonuclease that produces up to _____ ds DNA breaks per chromosome.

300,000

46

What happens to the cell due to the mitochondrial swelling?

ATP isn't synthesized, pumps fail, and water floods in, causing the cell to swell and burst

47

In the extrinsic pathway, the CTL upregulates expression of a surface molecule called ______.

Fas ligand (FasL, CD95L)

48

____ transduces a signal into the cell’s interior, which recruits an adaptor molecule called FADD, which activates _____.

CD95; caspase-8

50

Inflammatory molecules attract ____, primarily macrophages.

WBCs

51

If lymphocytes are exposed to radiation in the presence of a drug that blocks transcription, they ______.

do not die

53

The effect of the ______ is debris removal, injury resolution, and, if the stroma has been damaged, scar formation.

inflammatory process

54

What is the purpose of apoptosis, as opposed to necrosis?

the damaged cell is ingested by a healthy cell before it spills its dangerous contents

56

____ makes the mitochondrial membrane permeable and cytochrome C is released into the cytoplasm.

Bax

57

What does flippase do?

it keeps all PS in the inner leaflet of the bilayer

58

_____ are the most radiation-sensitive cells in the universe.

Lymphocytes

59

What organelle is affected first in necrosis?

the mitochondria

61

Where does the apoptotic cell die?

within the phagocyte

62

Cytochrome C in the cytoplasm activates a ______ called Apaf-1.

cytoplasmic protein

64

What happens when PS is on the outer membrane leaflet?

phagocytic cells recognize them, and then bind to and ingest the cell

65

Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are anti-apoptotic proteins on the ____.

mitochondrial membrane

66

Caspase-3 and caspase-9 result in the classic appearance of _____.

apoptosis

67

What is the first stage of compaction of DNA?

a nucleosome

68

Bax makes the mitochondrial membrane permeable and _____ is released into the _____.

cytochrome C; cytoplasm

69

What is the common link in the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway?

capsase-3

70

If a _____ recognizes that a cell is mutated or infected, it instructs the target cell to undergo _____.

cytotoxic T cell; apoptosis

71

The boiling action of the plasma membrane is called?

zeiosis

72

____ and ____ are anti-apoptotic proteins on the mitochondrial membrane.

Bcl-2; Bcl-XL

73

Low-dose radiation does not kill lymphocytes; rather, it induces them _____.

to kill themselves

74

What does scramblase do?

distributes PS equally on both sides of the membrane during apoptosis

75

The effect of the inflammatory process is debris removal, injury resolution, and, if the _____ has been damaged, scar formation.

stroma

76

All the phosphatidylserine (PS) in a normal plasma membrane is confined to the _____.

inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer